geometry problems from Bay Area Mathematical Olympiads (BAMO)

with aops links in the names

with aops links in the names

1999 BAMO p2

Let $O = (0,0), A = (0,a)$, and $B = (0,b)$, where $0<b<a$ are reals. Let $\Gamma$ be a circle with diameter $\overline{AB}$ and let $P$ be any other point on $\Gamma$. Line $PA$ meets the x-axis again at $Q$. Prove that angle $\angle BQP = \angle BOP$.

Let $O = (0,0), A = (0,a)$, and $B = (0,b)$, where $0<b<a$ are reals. Let $\Gamma$ be a circle with diameter $\overline{AB}$ and let $P$ be any other point on $\Gamma$. Line $PA$ meets the x-axis again at $Q$. Prove that angle $\angle BQP = \angle BOP$.

1999 BAMO p5

Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral which can be inscribed in a circle). Let $E$ and $F$ be variable points on the sides $AB$ and $CD$, respectively, such that $\frac{AE}{EB} = \frac{C}{FD}$. Let $P$ be the point on the segment $EF$ such that $\frac{PE}{PF} = \frac{AB}{CD}$. Prove that the ratio between the areas of triangle $APD$ and $BPC$ does not depend on the choice of $E$ and $F$.

Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral which can be inscribed in a circle). Let $E$ and $F$ be variable points on the sides $AB$ and $CD$, respectively, such that $\frac{AE}{EB} = \frac{C}{FD}$. Let $P$ be the point on the segment $EF$ such that $\frac{PE}{PF} = \frac{AB}{CD}$. Prove that the ratio between the areas of triangle $APD$ and $BPC$ does not depend on the choice of $E$ and $F$.

2000 BAMO p2

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $D$ the midpoint of side $AB, E$ the midpoint of side $BC$, and $F$ the midpoint of side $AC$. Let $k_1$ be the circle passing through points $A, D$, and $F$, let $k_2$ be the circle passing through points $B, E$, and $D$, and let $k_3$ be the circle passing through $C, F$, and $E$. Prove that circles $k_1, k_2$, and $k_3$ intersect in a point.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $D$ the midpoint of side $AB, E$ the midpoint of side $BC$, and $F$ the midpoint of side $AC$. Let $k_1$ be the circle passing through points $A, D$, and $F$, let $k_2$ be the circle passing through points $B, E$, and $D$, and let $k_3$ be the circle passing through $C, F$, and $E$. Prove that circles $k_1, k_2$, and $k_3$ intersect in a point.

2001 BAMO p2

respectively. The perpendicular from $A$ to $CH$ intersects line $HI$ in $X$ and the perpendicular from $C$ to $AH$ intersects line $HJ$ in $Y.$ Prove that $X,$ $Y,$ and $Z$ are collinear .

2002 BAMO p1

Let $ABC$ be a right triangle with right angle at $B$. Let $ACDE$ be a square drawn exterior to triangle $ABC$. If $M$ is the center of this square, find the measure of $\angle MBC$.

2003 BAMO p5

Let $ABCD$ be a square, and let $E$ be an internal point on side $AD$. Let $F$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $B$ to $CE$. Suppose $G$ is a point such that $BG = FG$, and the line through $G$ parallel to $BC$ passes through the midpoint of $EF$. Prove that $AC < 2 \cdot FG$.

respectively. The perpendicular from $A$ to $CH$ intersects line $HI$ in $X$ and the perpendicular from $C$ to $AH$ intersects line $HJ$ in $Y.$ Prove that $X,$ $Y,$ and $Z$ are collinear .

2002 BAMO p1

Let $ABC$ be a right triangle with right angle at $B$. Let $ACDE$ be a square drawn exterior to triangle $ABC$. If $M$ is the center of this square, find the measure of $\angle MBC$.

2003 BAMO p5

Let $ABCD$ be a square, and let $E$ be an internal point on side $AD$. Let $F$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $B$ to $CE$. Suppose $G$ is a point such that $BG = FG$, and the line through $G$ parallel to $BC$ passes through the midpoint of $EF$. Prove that $AC < 2 \cdot FG$.

2004 BAMO p2

A given line passes through the center $O$ of a circle. The line intersects the circle at points $A$ and $B$. Point $P$ lies in the exterior of the circle and does not lie on the line $AB$. Using only an unmarked straightedge, construct a line through $P$, perpendicular to the line $AB$. Give complete instructions for the construction and prove that it works.

A given line passes through the center $O$ of a circle. The line intersects the circle at points $A$ and $B$. Point $P$ lies in the exterior of the circle and does not lie on the line $AB$. Using only an unmarked straightedge, construct a line through $P$, perpendicular to the line $AB$. Give complete instructions for the construction and prove that it works.

2005 BAMO p2

Prove that if two medians in a triangle are equal in length, then the triangle is isosceles.

Prove that if two medians in a triangle are equal in length, then the triangle is isosceles.

2005 BAMO p5

Let $D$ be a dodecahedron which can be inscribed in a sphere with radius $R$. Let $I$ be an icosahedron which can also be inscribed in a sphere of radius $R$. Which has the greater volume, and why?

Note: A regular polyhedron is a geometric solid, all of whose faces are congruent regular polygons, in which the same number of polygons meet at each vertex. A regular dodecahedron is a polyhedron with $12$ faces which are regular pentagons and a regular icosahedron is a polyhedron with $20$ faces which are equilateral triangles. A polyhedron is inscribed in a sphere if all of its vertices lie on the surface of the sphere.

The illustration below shows a dodecahdron and an icosahedron, not necessarily to scale.

2006 BAMO p3

In triangle $ABC$, choose point $A_1$ on side $BC$, point $B_1$ on side $CA$, and point $C_1$ on side $AB$ in such a way that the three segments $AA_1, BB_1$, and $CC_1$ intersect in one point $P$. Prove that $P$ is the centroid of triangle $ABC$ if and only if $P$ is the centroid of triangle $A_1B_1C_1$.

2007 BAMO p3

In $\vartriangle ABC, D$ and $E$ are two points on segment $BC$ such that $BD = CE$ and $\angle BAD = \angle CAE$. Prove that $\vartriangle ABC$ is isosceles.

2008 BAMO p6

A point $D$ lies inside triangle $ABC$. Let $A_1, B_1, C_1$ be the second intersection points of the lines $AD$, $BD$, and $CD$ with the circumcircles of $BDC$, $CDA$, and $ADB$, respectively. Prove that $\frac{AD}{AA_1} + \frac{BD}{BA_1} + \frac{CD}{CC_1} = 1.$

Let $D$ be a dodecahedron which can be inscribed in a sphere with radius $R$. Let $I$ be an icosahedron which can also be inscribed in a sphere of radius $R$. Which has the greater volume, and why?

Note: A regular polyhedron is a geometric solid, all of whose faces are congruent regular polygons, in which the same number of polygons meet at each vertex. A regular dodecahedron is a polyhedron with $12$ faces which are regular pentagons and a regular icosahedron is a polyhedron with $20$ faces which are equilateral triangles. A polyhedron is inscribed in a sphere if all of its vertices lie on the surface of the sphere.

The illustration below shows a dodecahdron and an icosahedron, not necessarily to scale.

2006 BAMO p3

In triangle $ABC$, choose point $A_1$ on side $BC$, point $B_1$ on side $CA$, and point $C_1$ on side $AB$ in such a way that the three segments $AA_1, BB_1$, and $CC_1$ intersect in one point $P$. Prove that $P$ is the centroid of triangle $ABC$ if and only if $P$ is the centroid of triangle $A_1B_1C_1$.

2007 BAMO p3

In $\vartriangle ABC, D$ and $E$ are two points on segment $BC$ such that $BD = CE$ and $\angle BAD = \angle CAE$. Prove that $\vartriangle ABC$ is isosceles.

2008 BAMO p6

A point $D$ lies inside triangle $ABC$. Let $A_1, B_1, C_1$ be the second intersection points of the lines $AD$, $BD$, and $CD$ with the circumcircles of $BDC$, $CDA$, and $ADB$, respectively. Prove that $\frac{AD}{AA_1} + \frac{BD}{BA_1} + \frac{CD}{CC_1} = 1.$

2009 BAMO p7 (12p5)

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle with angles $\alpha, \beta,$ and $\gamma$. Prove that

$\frac{\cos(\beta-\gamma)}{cos\alpha}+\frac{\cos(\gamma-\alpha)}{\cos \beta}+\frac{\cos(\alpha-\beta)}{\cos \gamma} \geq \frac{3}{2}$

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle with angles $\alpha, \beta,$ and $\gamma$. Prove that

$\frac{\cos(\beta-\gamma)}{cos\alpha}+\frac{\cos(\gamma-\alpha)}{\cos \beta}+\frac{\cos(\alpha-\beta)}{\cos \gamma} \geq \frac{3}{2}$

2010 BAMO p6 (12p4)

Acute triangle $ABC$ has $\angle BAC < 45^\circ$. Point $D$ lies in the interior of triangle $ABC$ so that $BD = CD$ and $\angle BDC = 4 \angle BAC$. Point $E$ is the reflection of $C$ across line $AB$, and point $F$ is the reflection of $B$ across line $AC$. Prove that lines $AD$ and $EF$ are perpendicular.

Acute triangle $ABC$ has $\angle BAC < 45^\circ$. Point $D$ lies in the interior of triangle $ABC$ so that $BD = CD$ and $\angle BDC = 4 \angle BAC$. Point $E$ is the reflection of $C$ across line $AB$, and point $F$ is the reflection of $B$ across line $AC$. Prove that lines $AD$ and $EF$ are perpendicular.

2011 BAMO p4 (8p4 12p2)

In a plane, we are given line $\ell$, two points $A$ and $B$ neither of which lies on line $\ell$, and the reflection $A_1$ of point $A$ across line $\ell$. Using only a straightedge, construct the reflection $B_1$ of point $B$ across line $\ell$.

Prove that your construction works.

Note: “Using only a straightedge” means that you can perform only the following operations:

(a) Given two points, you can construct the line through them.

(b) Given two intersecting lines, you can construct their intersection point.

(c) You can select (mark) points in the plane that lie on or off objects already drawn in the plane. (The only facts you can use about these points are which lines they are on or not on.)

2011 BAMO p6 (12p4)

In a plane, we are given line $\ell$, two points $A$ and $B$ neither of which lies on line $\ell$, and the reflection $A_1$ of point $A$ across line $\ell$. Using only a straightedge, construct the reflection $B_1$ of point $B$ across line $\ell$.

Prove that your construction works.

Note: “Using only a straightedge” means that you can perform only the following operations:

(a) Given two points, you can construct the line through them.

(b) Given two intersecting lines, you can construct their intersection point.

(c) You can select (mark) points in the plane that lie on or off objects already drawn in the plane. (The only facts you can use about these points are which lines they are on or not on.)

2011 BAMO p6 (12p4)

Three circles $k_1, k_2$, and $k_3$ intersect in point $O$. Let $A, B$, and $C$ be the second intersection points (other than $O$) of $k_2$ and $k_3, k_1$ and $k_3$, and $k_1$ and $k_2$, respectively. Assume that $O$ lies inside of the triangle $ABC$. Let lines $AO,BO$, and $CO$ intersect circles $k_1, k_2$, and $k_3$ for a second time at points $A', B'$, and $C'$, respectively. If $|XY|$ denotes the length of segment $XY$, prove that $\frac{|AO|}{|AA'|}+\frac{|BO|}{|BB'|}+\frac{|CO|}{|CC'|}= 1$

2012 BAMO D (8p4)

Laura won the local math olympiad and was awarded a "magical" ruler. With it, she can draw (as usual) lines in the plane, and she can also measure segments and replicate them anywhere in the plane; but she can also divide a segment into as many equal parts as she wishes; for instance, she can divide any segment into $17$ equal parts. Laura drew a parallelogram $ABCD$ and decided to try out her magical ruler; with it, she found the midpoint $M$ of side $CD$, and she extended $CB$ beyond $B$ to point $N$ so that segments $CB$ and $BN$ were equal in length. Unfortunately, her mischievous little brother came along and erased everything on Laura's picture except for points $A, M$, and $N$. Using Laura's magical ruler, help her reconstruct the original parallelogram $ABCD$: write down the steps that she needs to follow and prove why this will lead to reconstructing the original parallelogram $ABCD$.

Laura won the local math olympiad and was awarded a "magical" ruler. With it, she can draw (as usual) lines in the plane, and she can also measure segments and replicate them anywhere in the plane; but she can also divide a segment into as many equal parts as she wishes; for instance, she can divide any segment into $17$ equal parts. Laura drew a parallelogram $ABCD$ and decided to try out her magical ruler; with it, she found the midpoint $M$ of side $CD$, and she extended $CB$ beyond $B$ to point $N$ so that segments $CB$ and $BN$ were equal in length. Unfortunately, her mischievous little brother came along and erased everything on Laura's picture except for points $A, M$, and $N$. Using Laura's magical ruler, help her reconstruct the original parallelogram $ABCD$: write down the steps that she needs to follow and prove why this will lead to reconstructing the original parallelogram $ABCD$.

2012 BAMO 4 (12p4)

Given a segment $AB$ in the plane, choose on it a point $M$ different from $A$ and $B$. Two equilateral triangles $\triangle AMC$ and $\triangle BMD$ in the plane are constructed on the same side of segment $AB$. The circumcircles of the two triangles intersect in point $M$ and another point $N$.

(a) Prove that lines $AD$ and $BC$ pass through point $N$.

(b) Prove that no matter where one chooses the point $M$ along segment $AB$, all lines $MN$ will pass through some fixed point $K$ in the plane.

Given a segment $AB$ in the plane, choose on it a point $M$ different from $A$ and $B$. Two equilateral triangles $\triangle AMC$ and $\triangle BMD$ in the plane are constructed on the same side of segment $AB$. The circumcircles of the two triangles intersect in point $M$ and another point $N$.

(a) Prove that lines $AD$ and $BC$ pass through point $N$.

(b) Prove that no matter where one chooses the point $M$ along segment $AB$, all lines $MN$ will pass through some fixed point $K$ in the plane.

2013 BAMO B (8p2)

Let triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ have a right angle at $C$, and let $M$ be the midpoint of the hypotenuse $AB$. Choose a point $D$ on line $BC$ so that angle $\angle{CDM}$ measures $30$ degrees. Prove that the segments $AC$ and $MD$ have equal lengths

Let triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ have a right angle at $C$, and let $M$ be the midpoint of the hypotenuse $AB$. Choose a point $D$ on line $BC$ so that angle $\angle{CDM}$ measures $30$ degrees. Prove that the segments $AC$ and $MD$ have equal lengths

2013 BAMO 3 (12p3)

Let $H$ be the orthocenter of an acute triangle $ABC$. Draw three circles: one passing through $A, B$, and $H$, another passing through $B, C$, and $H$, and finally, one passing through $C, A$, and $H$. Prove that the triangle whose vertices are the centers of those three circles is congruent to triangle $ABC$.

Let $H$ be the orthocenter of an acute triangle $ABC$. Draw three circles: one passing through $A, B$, and $H$, another passing through $B, C$, and $H$, and finally, one passing through $C, A$, and $H$. Prove that the triangle whose vertices are the centers of those three circles is congruent to triangle $ABC$.

2014 BAMO D/2 (8p4, 12p2)

Let $\triangle{ABC}$ be a scalene triangle with the longest side $AC$. (A ${\textit{scalene triangle}}$ has sides of different lengths.) Let $P$ and $Q$ be the points on the side $AC$ such that $AP=AB$ and $CQ=CB$. Thus we have a new triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$ inside $\triangle{ABC}$. Let $k_1$ be the circle circumscribed around the triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$ (that is, the circle passing through the vertices $B,P,$ and $Q$ of the triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$); and let $k_2$ be the circle inscribed in triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ (that is, the circle inside triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ that is tangent to the three sides $AB,BC$, and $CA$). Prove that the two circles $k_1$ and $k_2$ are concentric, that is, they have the same center.

Let $\triangle{ABC}$ be a scalene triangle with the longest side $AC$. (A ${\textit{scalene triangle}}$ has sides of different lengths.) Let $P$ and $Q$ be the points on the side $AC$ such that $AP=AB$ and $CQ=CB$. Thus we have a new triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$ inside $\triangle{ABC}$. Let $k_1$ be the circle circumscribed around the triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$ (that is, the circle passing through the vertices $B,P,$ and $Q$ of the triangle $\triangle{BPQ}$); and let $k_2$ be the circle inscribed in triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ (that is, the circle inside triangle $\triangle{ABC}$ that is tangent to the three sides $AB,BC$, and $CA$). Prove that the two circles $k_1$ and $k_2$ are concentric, that is, they have the same center.

2015 BAMO D/2 (8p4, 12p2)

In a quadrilateral, the two segments connecting the midpoints of its opposite sides are equal in length. Prove that the diagonals of the quadrilateral are perpendicular.

(In other words, let $M,N,P,$ and $Q$ be the midpoints of sides $AB,BC,CD,$ and $DA$ in quadrilateral $ABCD$. It is known that segments $MP$ and $NQ$ are equal in length. Prove that $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular.)

In a quadrilateral, the two segments connecting the midpoints of its opposite sides are equal in length. Prove that the diagonals of the quadrilateral are perpendicular.

(In other words, let $M,N,P,$ and $Q$ be the midpoints of sides $AB,BC,CD,$ and $DA$ in quadrilateral $ABCD$. It is known that segments $MP$ and $NQ$ are equal in length. Prove that $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular.)

2015 BAMO 4 (12p4)

Let $A$ be a corner of a cube. Let $B$ and $C$ the midpoints of two edges in the positions shown on the figure below:

The intersection of the cube and the plane containing $A,B,$ and $C$ is some polygon, $P$.

How many sides does $P$ have? Justify your answer.

Find the ratio of the area of $P$ to the area of $\triangle{ABC}$ and prove that your answer is correct.

Let $A$ be a corner of a cube. Let $B$ and $C$ the midpoints of two edges in the positions shown on the figure below:

The intersection of the cube and the plane containing $A,B,$ and $C$ is some polygon, $P$.

How many sides does $P$ have? Justify your answer.

Find the ratio of the area of $P$ to the area of $\triangle{ABC}$ and prove that your answer is correct.

2016 BAMO D/2 (8p4, 12p2)

In an acute triangle $ABC$ let $K,L,$ and $M$ be the midpoints of sides $AB,BC,$ and $CA,$ respectively. From each of $K,L,$ and $M$ drop two perpendiculars to the other two sides of the triangle; e.g., drop perpendiculars from $K$ to sides $BC$ and $CA,$ etc. The resulting $6$ perpendiculars intersect at points $Q,S,$ and $T$ as in the figure to form a hexagon $KQLSMT$ inside triangle $ABC.$ Prove that the area of this hexagon $KQLSMT$ is half of the area of the original triangle $ABC.$

In an acute triangle $ABC$ let $K,L,$ and $M$ be the midpoints of sides $AB,BC,$ and $CA,$ respectively. From each of $K,L,$ and $M$ drop two perpendiculars to the other two sides of the triangle; e.g., drop perpendiculars from $K$ to sides $BC$ and $CA,$ etc. The resulting $6$ perpendiculars intersect at points $Q,S,$ and $T$ as in the figure to form a hexagon $KQLSMT$ inside triangle $ABC.$ Prove that the area of this hexagon $KQLSMT$ is half of the area of the original triangle $ABC.$

2017 BAMO D/2 (8p4, 12p2)

The area of square $ABCD$ is $196 \text{cm}^2$. Point $E$ is inside the square, at the same distances from points $D$ and $C$, and such that $m \angle DEC = 150^{\circ}$. What is the perimeter of $\triangle ABE$ equal to? Prove your answer is correct.

The area of square $ABCD$ is $196 \text{cm}^2$. Point $E$ is inside the square, at the same distances from points $D$ and $C$, and such that $m \angle DEC = 150^{\circ}$. What is the perimeter of $\triangle ABE$ equal to? Prove your answer is correct.

2018 BAMO D/2 (8p4, 12p2)

Let points $P_1, P_2, P_3$, and $P_4$ be arranged around a circle in that order. (One possible example is drawn in Diagram 1.) Next draw a line through $P_4$ parallel to $P_1P_2$, intersecting the circle again at $P_5$. (If the line happens to be tangent to the circle, we simply take $P_5 =P_4$, as in Diagram 2. In other words, we consider the second intersection to be the point of tangency again.) Repeat this process twice more, drawing a line through $P_5$ parallel to $P_2P_3$, intersecting the circle again at $P_6$, and finally drawing a line through $P_6$ parallel to $P_3P_4$, intersecting the circle again at $P_7$. Prove that $P_7$ is the same point as $P_1$.

2019 BAMO B (8p2)

In the figure below, parallelograms $ABCD$ and $BFEC$ have areas $1234$ cm$^2$ and $2804$ cm$^2$, respectively. Points $M$ and $N$ are chosen on sides $AD$ and $FE$, respectively, so that segment $MN$ passes through $B$. Find the area of $\vartriangle MNC$.

In the figure below, parallelograms $ABCD$ and $BFEC$ have areas $1234$ cm$^2$ and $2804$ cm$^2$, respectively. Points $M$ and $N$ are chosen on sides $AD$ and $FE$, respectively, so that segment $MN$ passes through $B$. Find the area of $\vartriangle MNC$.

2019 BAMO E/3 (8p5, 12p3)

In triangle $\vartriangle ABC$, we have marked points $A_1$ on side $BC, B_1$ on side $AC$, and $C_1$ on side $AB$ so that $AA_1$ is an altitude, $BB_1$ is a median, and $CC_1$ is an angle bisector. It is known that $\vartriangle A_1B_1C_1$ is equilateral. Prove that $\vartriangle ABC$ is equilateral too.

source:

http://www.bamo.org/

In triangle $\vartriangle ABC$, we have marked points $A_1$ on side $BC, B_1$ on side $AC$, and $C_1$ on side $AB$ so that $AA_1$ is an altitude, $BB_1$ is a median, and $CC_1$ is an angle bisector. It is known that $\vartriangle A_1B_1C_1$ is equilateral. Prove that $\vartriangle ABC$ is equilateral too.

source:

http://www.bamo.org/

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