China TST 1986 - 2018 98p

geometry problems from Chinese Team Selection Tests (TST)
with aops links in the names
(only those not in IMO Shortlist)

1986 - 2018


If $ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral, then prove that the incenters of the triangles $ABC$, $BCD$, $CDA$, $DAB$ are the vertices of a rectangle.

1986 China TST P5
Given a square $ABCD$ whose side length is $1$, $P$ and $Q$ are points on the sides $AB$ and $AD$. If the perimeter of $APQ$ is $2$ find the angle $PCQ$.

Given a tetrahedron $ABCD$, $E$, $F$, $G$, are on the respectively on the segments $AB$, $AC$ and $AD$. Let $S_{XY Z}$ denote the area and $P_{XY Z}$ the perimeter of triangle $XYZ$. Prove that:
a) $S_{EFG} \le max\{S_{ABC},S_{ABD},S_{ACD},S_{BCD}\}$
(b) $S_{EFG}  \le max\{P_{ABC},P_{ABD},P_{ACD},P_{BCD}\}$.

In triangle $ABC$, $\angle C = 30^{\circ}$, $O$ and $I$ are the circumcenter and incenter respectively, Points $D \in AC$ and $E \in BC$, such that $AD = BE = AB$. Prove that $OI = DE$ and $OI \bot DE$.

Let $ABCD$ be a trapezium $AB // CD,$ $M$ and $N$ are fixed points on $AB,$  $P$ is a variable point on $CD$. $E = DN \cap AP$, $F = DN \cap MC$, $G = MC \cap PB$, $DP = \lambda \cdot CD$. Find the value of $\lambda$ for which the area of quadrilateral $PEFG$ is maximum.

Given triangle $ABC$, squares $ABEF, BCGH, CAIJ$ are constructed externally on side $AB, BC, CA$, respectively. Let $AH \cap BJ = P_1$, $BJ \cap CF = Q_1$, $CF \cap AH = R_1$, $AG \cap CE = P_2$, $BI \cap AG = Q_2$, $CE \cap BI = R_2$. Prove that triangle $P_1 Q_1 R_1$ is congruent to triangle $P_2 Q_2 R_2$.

$AD$ is the altitude on side $BC$ of triangle $ABC$. If $BC+AD-AB-AC = 0$, find the range of $\angle BAC$.

Alternative formulation. 
Let $AD$ be the altitude of triangle $ABC$ to the side $BC$. If $BC+AD=AB+AC$, then find the range of $\angle{A}$.

We choose 5 points $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_5$ on a circumference of radius 1 and centre $O.$ $P$ is a point inside the circle. Denote $Q_i$ as the intersection of $A_iA_{i+2}$ and $A_{i+1}P$, where $A_7 = A_2$ and $A_6 = A_1.$ Let $OQ_i = d_i, i = 1,2, \ldots, 5.$ Find the product $\prod^5_{i=1} A_iQ_i$ in terms of $d_i.$

A triangle $ABC$ is given in the plane with $AB = \sqrt{7},$ $BC = \sqrt{13}$ and $CA = \sqrt{19},$ circles are drawn with centers at $A,B$ and $C$ and radii $\frac{1}{3},$ $\frac{2}{3}$ and $1,$ respectively. Prove that there are points $A',B',C'$ on these three circles respectively such that triangle $ABC$ is congruent to triangle $A'B'C'.$

Let $ABC$ be a triangle and its bisector at $A$ cuts its circumcircle at $D.$ Let $I$ be the incenter of triangle $ABC,$ $M$ be the midpoint of $BC,$ $P$ is the symmetric to $I$ with respect to $M$ (Assuming $P$ is in the circumcircle). Extend $DP$ until it cuts the circumcircle again at $N.$ Prove that among segments $AN, BN, CN$, there is a segment that is the sum of the other two.

Given a fixed acute angle $\theta$ and a pair of internally tangent circles, let the line $l$ which passes through the point of tangency, $A$, cut the larger circle again at $B$ ($l$ does not pass through the centers of the circles). Let $M$ be a point on the major arc $AB$ of the larger circle, $N$ the point where $AM$ intersects the smaller circle, and $P$ the point on ray $MB$ such that $\angle MPN = \theta$. Find the locus of $P$ as $M$ moves on major arc $AB$ of the larger circle.

Let side $BC$ of $\bigtriangleup ABC$ be the diameter of a semicircle which cuts $AB$ and $AC$ at $D$ and $E$ respectively. $F$ and $G$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $D$ and $E$ to $BC$ respectively.  $DG$ and $EF$ intersect at $M$. Prove that $AM \perp BC$.

Given a real number $\lambda > 1$, let $P$ be a point on the arc $BAC$ of the circumcircle of $\bigtriangleup ABC$. Extend $BP$ and $CP$ to $U$ and $V$ respectively such that $BU = \lambda BA$, $CV = \lambda CA$. Then extend $UV$ to $Q$ such that $UQ = \lambda UV$. Find the locus of point $Q$.

1998 China TST P4
In acute-angled $\bigtriangleup ABC$, $H$ is the orthocenter, $O$ is the circumcenter and $I$ is the incenter. Given that $\angle C > \angle B > \angle A$, prove that $I$ lies within $\bigtriangleup BOH$

1999 China TST P4
A circle is tangential to sides $AB$ and $AD$ of convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ at $G$ and $H$ respectively, and cuts diagonal $AC$ at $E$ and $F$. What are the necessary and sufficient conditions such that there exists another circle which passes through $E$ and $F$, and is tangential to $DA$ and $DC$ extended?

2000 China TST P1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle such that $AB = AC$. Let $D,E$ be points on $AB,AC$ respectively such that $DE = AC$. Let $DE$ meet the circumcircle of triangle $ABC$ at point $T$. Let $P$ be a point on $AT$. Prove that $PD + PE = AT$ if and only if $P$ lies on the circumcircle of triangle $ADE$.

2001 China TST P1
$E$ and $F$ are interior points of convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ such that $AE = BE$, $CE = DE$, $\angle AEB = \angle CED$, $AF = DF$, $BF = CF$, $\angle AFD = \angle BFC$. Prove that $\angle AFD + \angle AEB = \pi$.

In the equilateral $\bigtriangleup ABC$, $D$ is a point on side $BC$.  $O_1$ and $I_1$ are the circumcenter and incenter of $\bigtriangleup ABD$ respectively, and $O_2$ and $I_2$ are the circumcenter and incenter of $\bigtriangleup ADC$ respectively.  $O_1I_1$ intersects $O_2I_2$ at $P$. Find the locus of point $P$ as $D$ moves along $BC$.

2002 China TST P1
Let $E$ and $F$ be the intersections of opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral $ABCD$. The two diagonals meet at $P$. Let $O$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to $EF$. Show that $\angle BOC=\angle AOD$.

Given triangle $ ABC$ and $ AB=c$, $ AC=b$ and $ BC=a$ satisfying $ a \geq b \geq c$, $ BE$ and $ CF$ are two interior angle bisectors. $ P$ is a point inside triangle $ AEF$. $ R$ and $ Q$ are the projections of $ P$ on sides $ AB$ and $ AC$. Prove that $ PR + PQ + RQ < b$.

Circles $ \omega_{1}$ and $ \omega_{2}$ intersect at points $ A$ and $ B.$ Points $ C$ and $ D$ are on circles $ \omega_{1}$ and $ \omega_{2},$ respectively, such that lines $ AC$ and $ AD$ are tangent to circles $ \omega_{2}$ and $ \omega_{1},$ respectively. Let $ I_{1}$ and $ I_{2}$ be the incenters of triangles $ ABC$ and $ ABD,$ respectively. Segments $ I_{1}I_{2}$ and $ AB$ intersect at $ E$. Prove that: $ \frac {1}{AE} = \frac {1}{AC} + \frac {1}{AD}$

2002 China TST Quiz6 P2
$ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$ meet at points $ P$ and $ Q$. The circle through $ P$, $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ meets $ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$ at points $ A$ and $ B$. Prove that the distance from $ Q$ to the lines $ PA$, $ PB$ and $ AB$ are equal.


(Prove the following three cases: $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ are in the common space of $ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$; $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ are out of the common space of $ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$; $ O_1$ is in the common space of $ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$, $ O_2$ is out of the common space of $ \odot O_1$ and $ \odot O_2$.


2002 China TST Quiz7 P1
Circle $ O$ is inscribed in a trapzoid $ ABCD$, $ \angle{A}$ and $ \angle{B}$ are all acute angles. A line through $ O$ intersects $ AD$ at $ E$ and $ BC$ at $ F$, and satisfies the following conditions:
(1) $ \angle{DEF}$ and $ \angle{CFE}$ are acute angles.
(2) $ AE+BF=DE+CF$.
Let $ AB=a$, $ BC=b$, $ CD=c$, then use $ a,b,c$ to express $ AE$


2003 China TST P1
$ABC$ is an acute-angled triangle. Let $D$ be the point on $BC$ such that $AD$ is the bisector of $\angle A$. Let $E, F$ be the feet of perpendiculars from $D$ to $AC,AB$ respectively. Suppose the lines $BE$ and $CF$ meet at $H$. The circumcircle of triangle $AFH$ meets $BE$ at $G$ (apart from $H$). Prove that the triangle constructed from $BG$, $GE$ and $BF$ is right-angled.

2003 China TST Quiz2 P1
Let $ ABCD$ be a quadrilateral which has an incircle centered at $ O$. Prove that
$ OA\cdot OC+OB\cdot OD=\sqrt{AB\cdot BC\cdot CD\cdot DA}$

In triangle $ABC$, $AB > BC > CA$, $AB=6$, $\angle{B}-\angle{C}=90^o$. The incircle touches $BC$ at $E$ and $EF$ is a diameter of the incircle. Radical $AF$ intersect $BC$ at $D$. $DE$ equals to the circumradius of $\triangle{ABC}$. Find $BC$ and $AC$.

2003 China TST Quiz5 P2
Denote by $\left(ABC\right)$ the circumcircle of a triangle $ABC$. Let $ABC$ be an isosceles right-angled triangle with $AB=AC=1$ and $\measuredangle CAB=90^{\circ}$. Let $D$ be the midpoint of the side $BC$, and let $E$ and $F$ be two points on the side $BC$. Let $M$ be the point of intersection of the circles $\left(ADE\right)$ and $\left(ABF\right)$ (apart from $A$). Let $N$ be the point of intersection of the line $AF$ and the circle $\left(ACE\right)$ (apart from $A$). Let $P$ be the point of intersection of the line $AD$ and the circle $\left(AMN\right)$. Find the length of $AP$.

2003 China TST Quiz8 P1
Triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in circle $O$. Tangent $PD$ is drawn from $A$, $D$ is on ray $BC$, $P$ is on ray $DA$. Line $PU$ ($U \in BD$) intersects circle $O$ at $Q$, $T$, and intersect $AB$ and $AC$ at $R$ and $S$ respectively. Prove that if $QR=ST$, then $PQ=UT$.

2004 China TST P1
Let $\angle XOY = \frac{\pi}{2}$; $P$ is a point inside $\angle XOY$ and we have $OP = 1; \angle XOP = \frac{\pi}{6}.$ A line passes $P$ intersects the Rays $OX$ and $OY$ at $M$ and $N$. Find the maximum value of $OM + ON - MN.$

2004 China TST P4
Points $ D$, $ E$, $ F$ are on the sides $ BC$, $ CA$, $ AB$ of an acute-angled $ \triangle{ABC}$ respectively, which satisfy $ EF\parallel BC$. $ D_1$ is a point on side $ BC$(different from $ B$, $ D$, $ C$), through $ D_1$ draw $ D_1E_1 \parallel DE, D_1F_1 \parallel DF$, which intersect $ AC$ and $ AB$ at points $ E_1$, $ F_1$ respectively. Join $ E_1F_1$. Construct,on the same side of $ A$, triangle $ PBC$, such that $ \triangle PBC\sim\triangle DEF$. Join $ PD_1$. Prove that $ EF,E_1F_1,PD_1$ are concurrent.

2004 China TST Quiz1 P1
Using $ AB$ and $ AC$ as diameters, two semi-circles are constructed respectively outside the acute triangle $ ABC$. $ AH \perp BC$ at $ H$, $ D$ is any point on side $ BC$ ($ D$ is not coinside with $ B$ or $ C$ ), through $ D$, construct $ DE \parallel AC$ and $ DF \parallel AB$ with $ E$ and $ F$ on the two semi-circles respectively. Show that $ D$, $ E$, $ F$ and $ H$ are concyclic.


2004 China TST Quiz2 P2
Convex quadrilateral $ ABCD$ is inscribed in a circle, $ \angle{A}=60^o$, $ BC=CD=1$, rays $ AB$ and $ DC$ intersect at point $ E$, rays $ BC$ and $ AD$ intersect each other at point $ F$. It is given that the perimeters of triangle $ BCE$ and triangle $ CDF$ are both integers. Find the perimeter of quadrilateral $ ABCD$.

2004 China TST Quiz3 P2
Two equal-radii circles with centres $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ intersect each other at $ P$ and $ Q$, $ O$ is the midpoint of the common chord $ PQ$. Two lines $ AB$ and $ CD$ are drawn through $ P$ ( $ AB$ and $ CD$ are not coincide with $ PQ$ ) such that $ A$ and $ C$ lie on circle $ O_1$ and $ B$ and $ D$ lie on circle $ O_2$. $ M$ and $ N$ are the mipoints of segments $ AD$ and $ BC$ respectively. Knowing that $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ are not in the common part of the two circles, and $ M$, $ N$ are not coincide with $ O$. Prove that $ M$, $ N$, $ O$ are collinear.


2004 China TST Quiz5 P3
In convex quadrilateral $ ABCD$, $ AB=a$, $ BC=b$, $ CD=c$, $ DA=d$, $ AC=e$, $ BD=f$. If $ \max \{a,b,c,d,e,f \}=1$, then find the maximum value of $ abcd$.

2005 China TST P1
Convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ is cyclic in circle $(O)$, $P$ is the intersection of the diagonals $AC$ and $BD$. Circle $(O_{1})$ passes through $P$ and $B$, circle $(O_{2})$ passes through $P$ and $A$, Circles $(O_{1})$ and $(O_{2})$ intersect at $P$ and $Q$. $(O_{1})$, $(O_{2})$ intersect $(O)$ at another points $E$, $F$ (besides $B$, $A$), respectively. Prove that $PQ$, $CE$, $DF$ are concurrent or parallel.


Triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in circle $\omega$. Circle $\gamma$ is tangent to $AB$ and $AC$ at points $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Also circle $\gamma$ is tangent to circle $\omega$ at point $S$. Let the intesection of $AS$ and $PQ$ be $T$. Prove that $\angle{BTP}=\angle{CTQ}$.

2005 China TST Quiz2 P2
Cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$ has positive integer side lengths $AB$, $BC$, $CA$, $AD$. It is known that $AD=2005$, $\angle{ABC}=\angle{ADC} = 90^o$, and $\max \{ AB,BC,CD \} < 2005$. Determine the maximum and minimum possible values for the perimeter of $ABCD$.

Triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in circle $\omega$. Circle $\gamma$ is tangent to $AB$ and $AC$ at points $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Also circle $\gamma$ is tangent to circle $\omega$ at point $S$. Let the intesection of $AS$ and $PQ$ be $T$. Prove that $\angle{BTP}=\angle{CTQ}$.

2005 China TST Quiz4 P2
Let $\omega$ be the circumcircle of acute triangle $ABC$. Two tangents of $\omega$ from $B$ and $C$ intersect at $P$, $AP$ and $BC$ intersect at $D$. Point $E$, $F$ are on $AC$ and $AB$ such that $DE \parallel BA$ and $DF \parallel CA$.
(1) Prove that $F,B,C,E$ are concyclic.
(2) Denote $A_{1}$ the centre of the circle passing through $F,B,C,E$. $B_{1}$, $C_{1}$ are difined similarly. Prove that $AA_{1}$, $BB_{1}$, $CC_{1}$ are concurrent

2005 China TST Quiz6 P2
In acute angled triangle $ABC$, $BC=a$,$CA=b$,$AB=c$, and $a>b>c$. $I,O,H$ are the incentre, circumcentre and orthocentre of $\triangle{ABC}$ respectively. Point $D \in BC$, $E \in CA$ and $AE=BD$, $CD+CE=AB$. Let the intersectionf of $BE$ and $AD$ be $K$. Prove that $KH \parallel IO$ and $KH = 2IO$.

$H$ is the orthocentre of $\triangle{ABC}$. $D$, $E$, $F$ are on the circumcircle of $\triangle{ABC}$ such that $AD \parallel BE \parallel CF$. $S$, $T$, $U$ are the semetrical points of $D$, $E$, $F$ with respect to $BC$, $CA$, $AB$. Show that $S, T, U, H$ lie on the same circle.

$ABCD$ is a trapezoid with $AB || CD$. There are two circles $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ is the trapezoid such that $\omega_1$ is tangent to $DA$, $AB$, $BC$ and $\omega_2$ is tangent to $BC$, $CD$, $DA$. Let $l_1$ be a line passing through $A$ and tangent to $\omega_2$(other than $AD$), Let $l_2$ be a line passing through $C$ and tangent to $\omega_1$ (other than $CB$). Prove that $l_1 || l_2$.

2006 China TST Quiz2 P2
Let $\omega$ be the circumcircle of $\triangle{ABC}$. $P$ is an interior point of $\triangle{ABC}$. $A_{1}, B_{1}, C_{1}$ are the intersections of $AP, BP, CP$ respectively and $A_{2}, B_{2}, C_{2}$ are the symmetrical points of $A_{1}, B_{1}, C_{1}$ with respect to the midpoints of side $BC, CA, AB$. Show that the circumcircle of $\triangle{A_{2}B_{2}C_{2}}$ passes through the orthocentre of $\triangle{ABC}$.


2006 China TST Quiz3 P1
The centre of the circumcircle of quadrilateral $ABCD$ is $O$ and $O$ is not on any of the sides of $ABCD$. $P=AC \cap BD$. The circumecentres of $\triangle{OAB}$, $\triangle{OBC}$, $\triangle{OCD}$ and $\triangle{ODA}$ are $O_1$, $O_2$, $O_3$ and $O_4$ respectively. Prove that $O_1O_3$, $O_2O_4$ and $OP$ are concurrent.

2006 China TST Quiz4 P1
Let $K$ and $M$ be points on the side $AB$ of a triangle $\triangle{ABC}$, and let $L$ and $N$ be points on the side $AC$. The point $K$ is between $M$ and $B$, and the point $L$ is between $N$ and $C$. If $\frac{BK}{KM}=\frac{CL}{LN}$, then prove that the orthocentres of the triangles $\triangle{ABC}$, $\triangle{AKL}$ and $\triangle{AMN}$ lie on one line.

2006 China TST Quiz6 P1
Let the intersections of $\odot O_1$ and $\odot O_2$ be $A$ and $B$. Point $R$ is on arc $AB$ of $\odot O_1$ and $T$ is on arc $AB$ on $\odot O_2$. $AR$ and $BR$ meet $\odot O_2$ at $C$ and $D$; $AT$ and $BT$ meet $\odot O_1$ at $Q$ and $P$. If $PR$ and $TD$ meet at $E$ and $QR$ and $TC$ meet at $F$, then prove: $AE \cdot BT \cdot BR = BF \cdot AT \cdot AR$.

2007 China TST P1
Points $ A$ and $ B$ lie on the circle with center $ O.$ Let point $ C$ lies outside the circle; let $ CS$ and $ CT$ be tangents to the circle. $ M$ be the midpoint of minor arc $ AB$ of $ (O).$ $ MS,\,MT$ intersect $ AB$ at points $ E,\,F$ respectively. The lines passing through $ E,\,F$ perpendicular to $ AB$ cut $ OS,\,OT$ at $ X$ and $ Y$ respectively. A line passed through $ C$ intersect the circle $ (O)$ at $ P,\,Q$ ($ P$ lies on segment $ CQ$). Let $ R$ be the intersection of $ MP$ and $ AB,$ and let $ Z$ be the circumcentre of triangle $ PQR.$ Prove that: $ X,\,Y,\,Z$ are collinear.

2007 China TST Quiz1 P2
Let $ I$ be the incenter of triangle $ ABC.$ Let $ M,N$ be the midpoints of $ AB,AC,$ respectively. Points $ D,E$ lie on $ AB,AC$ respectively such that $ BD=CE=BC.$ The line perpendicular to $ IM$ through $ D$ intersects the line perpendicular to $ IN$ through $ E$ at $ P.$ Prove that $ AP\perp BC.$

2007 China TST Quiz3 P1
Let $ ABC$ be a triangle. Circle $ \omega$­ passes through points $ B$ and $ C.$ Circle $ \omega_{1}$ is tangent internally to $ \omega$­ and also to sides $ AB$ and $ AC$ at $ T,\, P,$ and $ Q,$ respectively. Let $ M$ be midpoint of arc $ BC\, ($containing $ T)$ of ­$ \omega.$ Prove that lines $ PQ,\,BC,$ and $ MT$ are concurrent.

2007 China TST Quiz5 P1
Let convex quadrilateral $ ABCD$ be inscribed in a circle centers at $ O.$ The opposite sides $ BA,CD$ meet at $ H$, the diagonals $ AC,BD$ meet at $ G.$ Let $ O_{1},O_{2}$ be the circumcenters of triangles $ AGD,BGC.$ $ O_{1}O_{2}$ intersects $ OG$ at $ N.$ The line $ HG$ cuts the circumcircles of triangles $ AGD,BGC$ at $ P,Q$, respectively. Denote by $ M$ the midpoint of $ PQ.$ Prove that $ NO = NM.$

2007 China TST Quiz6 P2
Let $ ABCD$ be the inscribed quadrilateral with the circumcircle $ \omega$.Let $ \zeta$ be another circle that internally tangent to $ \omega$ and to the lines $ BC$ and $ AD$ at points $ M,N$ respectively.Let $ I_1,I_2$ be the incenters of the $ \triangle ABC$ and $ \triangle ABD$.Prove that $ M,I_1,I_2,N$ are collinear.

2008 China TST P1
Let $ ABC$ be a triangle, let $ AB > AC$. Its incircle touches side $ BC$ at point $ E$. Point $ D$ is the second intersection of the incircle with segment $ AE$ (different from $ E$). Point $ F$ (different from $ E$) is taken on segment $ AE$ such that $ CE = CF$. The ray $ CF$ meets $ BD$ at point $ G$. Show that $ CF = FG$.

2008 China TST Quiz2 P1
Let $ ABC$ be a triangle, line $ l$ cuts its sides $ BC,CA,AB$ at $ D,E,F$, respectively. Denote by $ O_{1},O_{2},O_{3}$ the circumcenters of triangle $ AEF,BFD,CDE$, respectively. Prove that the orthocenter of triangle $ O_{1}O_{2}O_{3}$ lies on line $ l$.

2008 China TST Quiz3 P1
Let $ P$ be the the isogonal conjugate of $ Q$ with respect to triangle $ ABC$, and $ P,Q$ are in the interior of triangle $ ABC$. Denote by $ O_{1},O_{2},O_{3}$ the circumcenters of triangle $ PBC,PCA,PAB$, $ O'_{1},O'_{2},O'_{3}$ the circumcenters of triangle $ QBC,QCA,QAB$, $ O$ the circumcenter of triangle $ O_{1}O_{2}O_{3}$, $ O'$ the circumcenter of triangle $ O'_{1}O'_{2}O'_{3}$. Prove that $ OO'$ is parallel to $ PQ$.


Let $ ABC$ be an acute triangle, let $ M,N$ be the midpoints of minor arcs $ \widehat{CA},\widehat{AB}$ of the circumcircle of triangle $ ABC,$ point $ D$ is the midpoint of segment $ MN,$ point $ G$ lies on minor arc $ \widehat{BC}.$ Denote by $ I,I_{1},I_{2}$ the incenters of triangle $ ABC,ABG,ACG$ respectively.Let $ P$ be the second intersection of the circumcircle of triangle $ GI_{1}I_{2}$ with the circumcircle of triangle $ ABC.$ Prove that three points $ D,I,P$ are collinear

2009 China TST P1
Let $ ABC$ be a triangle. Point $ D$ lies on its sideline $ BC$ such that $ \angle CAD = \angle CBA.$ Circle $ (O)$ passing through $ B,D$ intersects $ AB,AD$ at $ E,F$, respectively. $ BF$ meets $ DE$ at $ G$.Denote by$ M$ the midpoint of $ AG.$ Show that $ CM\perp AO.$

2009 China TST Quiz1 P1
Given that circle $ \omega$ is tangent internally to circle $ \Gamma$ at $ S.$  $ \omega$ touches the chord $ AB$ of $ \Gamma$ at $ T$. Let $ O$ be the center of $ \omega.$ Point $ P$ lies on the line $ AO.$ Show that $ PB\perp AB$ if and only if $ PS\perp TS.$

2009 China TST Quiz2 P1
In convex pentagon $ ABCDE$, denote by $ AD\cap BE = F,BE\cap CA = G,CA\cap DB = H,DB\cap EC = I,EC\cap AD = J$, $AI\cap BE = A',BJ \cap CA= B',CF \cap DB = C',DG\cap EC = D',EH\cap AD = E'.$ Prove that $ \frac {AB'}{B'C}\cdot\frac {CD'}{D'E}\cdot\frac {EA'}{A'B}\cdot\frac {BC'}{C'D}\cdot\frac {DE'}{E'A} = 1$.


2009 China TST Quiz3 P2
In convex quadrilateral $ ABCD$, $ CB,DA$ are external angle bisectors of $ \angle DCA,\angle CDB$, respectively. Points $ E,F$ lie on the rays $ AC,BD$ respectively such that $ CEFD$ is cyclic quadrilateral. Point $ P$ lie in the plane of quadrilateral $ ABCD$ such that $ DA,CB$ are external angle bisectors of $ \angle PDE,\angle PCF$ respectively. $ AD$ intersects $ BC$ at $ Q.$ Prove that $ P$ lies on $ AB$ if and only if $ Q$ lies on segment $ EF$.

2009 China TST Quiz4 P1
Given that points $ D,E$ lie on the sidelines $ AB,BC$ of triangle $ ABC$, respectively, point $ P$ is in interior of triangle $ ABC$ such that $ PE = PC$ and $ \bigtriangleup DEP\sim \bigtriangleup PCA.$ Prove that $ BP$ is tangent of the circumcircle of triangle $ PAD.$

2009 China TST Quiz5 P2
In acute triangle $ ABC,$ points $ P,Q$ lie on its sidelines $ AB,AC,$ respectively. The circumcircle of triangle $ ABC$ intersects of triangle $ APQ$ at $ X$ (different from $ A$). Let $ Y$ be the reflection of $ X$ in line $ PQ.$ Given $ PX>PB.$ Prove that $ S_{\bigtriangleup XPQ}>S_{\bigtriangleup YBC}.$ Where $ S_{\bigtriangleup XYZ}$ denotes the area of triangle $ XYZ.$


Given acute triangle $ABC$ with $AB>AC$, let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$. $P$ is a point in triangle $AMC$ such that $\angle MAB=\angle PAC$. Let $O,O_1,O_2$ be the circumcenters of $\triangle ABC,\triangle ABP,\triangle ACP$ respectively. Prove that line $AO$ passes through the midpoint of $O_1 O_2$.

2010 China TST Quiz1 P2
Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Assume line $AB$ and $CD$ intersect at $E$, and $B$ lies between $A$ and $E$. Assume line $AD$ and $BC$ intersect at $F$, and $D$ lies between $A$ and $F$. Assume the circumcircles of $\triangle BEC$ and $\triangle CFD$ intersect at $C$ and $P$. Prove that $\angle BAP=\angle CAD$ if and only if $BD\parallel EF$.

2010 China TST Quiz1 P4
Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle with $AB>AC$, let $I$ be the center of the incircle. Let $M,N$ be the midpoint of $AC$ and $AB$ respectively. $D,E$ are on $AC$ and $AB$ respectively such that $BD\parallel IM$ and $CE\parallel IN$. A line through $I$ parallel to $DE$ intersects $BC$ in $P$. Let $Q$ be the projection of $P$ on line $AI$. Prove that $Q$ is on the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$.

2010 China TST Quiz2 P1
Let  $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with $A,B,C,D$ concyclic. Assume $\angle ADC$ is acute and $\frac{AB}{BC}=\frac{DA}{CD}$. Let $\Gamma$ be a circle through $A$ and $D$, tangent to $AB$, and let $E$ be a point on $\Gamma$ and inside $ABCD$. Prove that $AE\perp EC$ if and only if $\frac{AE}{AB}-\frac{ED}{AD}=1$.

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle, and let $D$ be the projection of $A$ on $BC$. Let $M,N$ be the midpoints of $AB$ and $AC$ respectively. Let $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ be the circumcircles of $\triangle BDM$ and $\triangle CDN$ respectively, and let $K$ be the other intersection point of $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point on $BC$ and $E,F$ are on $AC$ and $AB$ respectively such that $PEAF$ is a parallelogram. Prove that if $MN$ is a common tangent line of $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$, then $K,E,A,F$ are concyclic.

Let $\omega$ be a semicircle and $AB$ its diameter. $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ are two different circles, both tangent to $\omega$ and to $AB$, and $\omega_1$ is also tangent to $\omega_2$. Let $P,Q$ be the tangent points of $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ to $AB$ respectively, and $P$ is between $A$ and $Q$. Let $C$ be the tangent point of $\omega_1$ and $\omega$. Find $\tan\angle ACQ$.


2011 China TST Quiz1 P1
In $\triangle ABC$ we have $BC>CA>AB$. The nine point circle is tangent to the incircle, $A$-excircle, $B$-excircle and $C$-excircle at the points $T,T_A,T_B,T_C$ respectively. Prove that the segments $TT_B$ and lines $T_AT_C$ intersect each other.

2011 China TST Quiz1 P4
Let one of the intersection points of two circles with centres $O_1,O_2$ be $P$. A common tangent touches the circles at $A,B$ respectively. Let the perpendicular from $A$ to the line $BP$ meet $O_1O_2$ at $C$. Prove that $AP\perp PC$.

2011 China TST Quiz2 P4
Let $AA',BB',CC'$ be three diameters of the circumcircle of an acute triangle $ABC$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point in the interior of $\triangle ABC$, and let $D,E,F$ be the orthogonal projection of $P$ on $BC,CA,AB$, respectively. Let $X$ be the point such that $D$ is the midpoint of $A'X$, let $Y$ be the point such that $E$ is the midpoint of $B'Y$, and similarly let $Z$ be the point such that $F$ is the midpoint of $C'Z$. Prove that triangle $XYZ$ is similar to triangle $ABC$.

Let $H$ be the orthocenter of an acute trangle $ABC$ with circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $P$ be a point on the arc $BC$ (not containing $A$) of $\Gamma$, and let $M$ be a point on the arc $CA$ (not containing $B$) of $\Gamma$ such that $H$ lies on the segment $PM$. Let $K$ be another point on $\Gamma$ such that $KM$ is parallel to the Simson line of $P$ with respect to triangle $ABC$. Let $Q$ be another point on $\Gamma$ such that $PQ \parallel BC$. Segments $BC$ and $KQ$ intersect at a point $J$. Prove that $\triangle KJM$ is an isosceles triangle.

Given a scalene triangle $ABC$. Its incircle touches $BC,AC,AB$ at $D,E,F$ respectvely. Let $L,M,N$ be the symmetric points of $D$ with $EF$,of $E$ with $FD$,of $F$ with $DE$,respectively. Line $AL$ intersects $BC$ at $P$,line $BM$ intersects $CA$ at $Q$,line $CN$ intersects $AB$ at $R$. Prove that $P,Q,R$ are collinear.

Given two circles ${\omega _1},{\omega _2}$, $S$ denotes all $\Delta ABC$ satisfies that ${\omega _1}$ is the circumcircle of $\Delta ABC$,  ${\omega _2}$ is the $A$- excircle of $\Delta ABC$ , ${\omega _2}$ touches $BC,CA,AB$ at $D,E,F$. $S$ is not empty, prove that the centroid of $\Delta DEF$ is a fixed point.

In an acute-angled $ABC$, $\angle A>60^{\circ}$, $H$ is its orthocenter. $M,N$ are two points on $AB,AC$ respectively, such that $\angle HMB=\angle HNC=60^{\circ}$. Let $O$ be the circumcenter of triangle $HMN$. $D$ is a point on the same side with $A$ of $BC$ such that $\triangle DBC$ is an equilateral triangle. Prove that $H,O,D$ are collinear.

The quadrilateral $ABCD$ is inscribed in circle $\omega$. $F$ is the intersection point of $AC$ and $BD$. $BA$ and $CD$ meet at $E$. Let the projection of $F$ on $AB$ and $CD$ be $G$ and $H$, respectively. Let $M$ and $N$ be the midpoints of $BC$ and $EF$, respectively. If the circumcircle of $\triangle MNG$ only meets segment $BF$ at $P$, and the circumcircle of $\triangle MNH$ only meets segment $CF$ at $Q$, prove that $PQ$ is parallel to $BC$.

Let $P$ be a given point inside the triangle $ABC$. Suppose $L,M,N$ are the midpoints of $BC, CA, AB$ respectively and $PL: PM: PN= BC: CA: AB.$ The extensions of $AP, BP, CP$ meet the circumcircle of $ABC$ at $D,E,F$ respectively. Prove that the circumcentres of $APF, APE, BPF, BPD, CPD, CPE$ are concyclic.

The circumcircle of triangle $ABC$ has centre $O$. $P$ is the midpoint of $\widehat{BAC}$ and $QP$ is the diameter. Let $I$ be the incentre of $\triangle ABC$ and let $D$ be the intersection of $PI$ and $BC$. The circumcircle of $\triangle AID$ and the extension of $PA$ meet at $F$. The point $E$ lies on the line segment $PD$ such that $DE=DQ$. Let $r,R$ be the radius of the inscribed circle and circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$, respectively. Show that if $\angle AEF=\angle APE$, then $\sin^2\angle BAC=\dfrac{2r}R$


$ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral, with diagonals $AC,BD$ perpendicular to each other. Let point $F$ be on side $BC$, the parallel line $EF$ to $AC$ intersect $AB$ at point $E$, line $FG$ parallel to $BD$ intersect $CD$ at $G$. Let the projection of $E$ onto $CD$ be $P$, projection of $F$ onto $DA$ be $Q$, projection of $G$ onto $AB$ be $R$. Prove that $QF$ bisects $\angle PQR$.

Given circle $O$ with radius $R$, the inscribed triangle $ABC$ is an acute scalene triangle, where $AB$ is the largest side. $AH_A, BH_B,CH_C$ are heights on $BC,CA,AB$. Let $D$ be the symmetric point of $H_A$ with respect to $H_BH_C$, $E$ be the symmetric point of $H_B$ with respect to $H_AH_C$. $P$ is the intersection of $AD,BE$, $H$ is the orthocentre of $\triangle ABC$. Prove: $OP\cdot OH$ is fixed, and find this value in terms of $R$.

Let the circumcenter of triangle $ABC$ be $O$. $H_A$ is the projection of $A$ onto $BC$. The extension of $AO$ intersects the circumcircle of $BOC$ at $A'$. The projections of $A'$ onto $AB, AC$ are $D,E$, and $O_A$ is the circumcentre of triangle $DH_AE$. Define $H_B, O_B, H_C, O_C$ similarly. Prove: $H_AO_A, H_BO_B, H_CO_C$ are concurrent.


The circle $\Gamma$ through $A$ of triangle $ABC$ meets sides $AB,AC$ at $E$,$F$ respectively, and circumcircle of $ABC$ at $P$. Prove: Reflection of $P$ across $EF$ is on $BC$ if and only if $\Gamma$ passes through $O$ (the circumcentre of $ABC$).

Let $ D $ be the midpoint of $ BC $ and $ E\in \odot (BC) $ be a point inside $ \triangle ABC $ such that $ AE \perp BC  . $ Let $ F=EG \cap OD $ and $ K, L $ be the point lie on $ BC $ such that $ FK \parallel OB, FL \parallel OC . $ Let $ M \in AB $ be a point such that $ MK \perp BC $ and $ N \in AC $ be a point such that $ NL \perp BC . $ Let $ \omega $ be a circle tangent to $ OB, OC $ at $ B, C, $ respectively $ . $ Prove that $ \odot (AMN) $ is tangent to $ \omega $


$\triangle{ABC}$ is isosceles with $AB = AC >BC$. Let $D$ be a point in its interior such that $DA = DB+DC$. Suppose that the perpendicular bisector of $AB$ meets the external angle bisector of $\angle{ADB}$ at $P$, and let $Q$ be the intersection of the perpendicular bisector of $AC$ and the external angle bisector of $\angle{ADC}$. Prove that $B,C,P,Q$ are concyclic.

$ABCDEF$ is a cyclic hexagon with $AB=BC=CD=DE$. $K$ is a point on segment $AE$ satisfying $\angle BKC=\angle KFE, \angle CKD = \angle KFA$. Prove that $KC=KF$.

Refer to the diagram below. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral with center $O$. Let the internal angle bisectors of $\angle A$ and $\angle C$ intersect at $I$ and let those of $\angle B$ and $\angle D$ intersect at $J$. Now extend $AB$ and $CD$ to intersect $IJ$ and $P$ and $R$ respectively and let $IJ$ intersect $BC$ and $DA$ at $Q$ and $S$ respectively. Let the midpoints of $PR$ and $QS$ be $M$ and $N$ respectively. Given that $O$ does not lie on the line $IJ$, show that $OM$ and $ON$ are perpendicular.

$P$ is a point in the interior of acute triangle $ABC$. $D,E,F$ are the reflections of $P$ across $BC,CA,AB$ respectively. Rays $AP,BP,CP$ meet the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ at $L,M,N$ respectively. Prove that the circumcircles of $\triangle PDL,\triangle PEM,\triangle PFN$ meet at a point $T$ different from $P$.

The diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$ intersect at $P$, and there exist a circle $\Gamma$ tangent to the extensions of $AB,BC,AD,DC$ at $X,Y,Z,T$ respectively. Circle $\Omega$ passes through points $A,B$, and is externally tangent to circle $\Gamma$ at $S$. Prove that $SP\perp ST$.
In cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$, $AB>BC$, $AD>DC$, $I,J$ are the incenters of $\triangle ABC$,$\triangle ADC$ respectively. The circle with diameter $AC$ meets segment $IB$ at $X$, and the extension of $JD$ at $Y$. Prove that if the four points $B,I,J,D$ are concyclic, then $X,Y$ are the reflections of each other across $AC$.

Find out the maximum value of the numbers of edges of a solid regular octahedron that we can see from a point out of the regular octahedron.

(We define we can see an edge $AB$ of the regular octahedron from point $P$ outside if and only if the intersection of non degenerate triangle $PAB$ and the solid regular octahedron is exactly edge $AB$.

In the non-isosceles triangle $ABC$,$D$ is the midpoint of side $BC$,$E$ is the midpoint of side $CA$,$F$ is the midpoint of side $AB$.The line(different from line $BC$) that is tangent to the inscribed circle of triangle $ABC$ and passing through point $D$ intersect line $EF$ at $X$.Define $Y,Z$ similarly.Prove that $X,Y,Z$ are collinear.

Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral and let $l$ be a line. Let $l$ intersect the lines $AB,CD,BC,DA,AC,BD$ at points $X,X',Y,Y',Z,Z'$ respectively. Given that these six points on $l$ are in the order $X,Y,Z,X',Y',Z'$, show that the circles with diameter $XX',YY',ZZ'$ are coaxal.

Let $ABCD$ be a non-cyclic convex quadrilateral. The feet of perpendiculars from $A$ to $BC,BD,CD$ are $P,Q,R$ respectively, where $P,Q$ lie on segments $BC,BD$ and $R$ lies on $CD$ extended. The feet of perpendiculars from $D$ to $AC,BC,AB$ are $X,Y,Z$ respectively, where $X,Y$ lie on segments $AC,BC$ and $Z$ lies on $BA$ extended. Let the orthocenter of $\triangle ABD$ be $H$. Prove that the common chord of circumcircles of $\triangle PQR$ and $\triangle XYZ$ bisects $BH$.

In $\varDelta{ABC}$,the excircle of $A$ is tangent to segment $BC$,line $AB$ and $AC$ at $E,D,F$ respectively.$EZ$ is the diameter of the circle.$B_1$ and $C_1$ are on $DF$, and $BB_1\perp{BC}$,$CC_1\perp{BC}$.Line $ZB_1,ZC_1$ intersect $BC$ at $X,Y$ respectively.Line $EZ$ and line $DF$ intersect at $H$,$ZK$ is perpendicular to $FD$ at $K$.If  $H$ is the orthocenter of $\varDelta{XYZ}$,prove that:$H,K,X,Y$ are concyclic.

Given a circle with radius $1$ and $2$ points $C, D$ given on it. Given a constant $l$ with $0<l\le 2$. Moving chord of the circle $AB=l$ and $ABCD$ is a non-degenerated convex quadrilateral. $AC$ and $BD$ intersects at $P$. Find the loci of the circumcenters of triangles $ABP$ and $BCP$.
Circle $\omega$ is tangent to sides $AB$,$AC$ of triangle $ABC$ at $D$,$E$ respectively, such that $D\neq B$, $E\neq C$ and $BD+CE<BC$. $F$,$G$ lies on $BC$ such that $BF=BD$, $CG=CE$. Let $DG$ and $EF$ meet at $K$. $L$ lies on minor arc $DE$ of $\omega$, such that the tangent of $L$ to $\omega$ is parallel to $BC$. Prove that the incenter of $\triangle ABC$ lies on $KL$.

Given a triangle $ABC$. $D$ is a moving point on the edge $BC$. Point $E$ and Point $F$ are on the edge $AB$ and $AC$, respectively, such that $BE=CD$ and $CF=BD$. The circumcircle of $\triangle BDE$ and $\triangle CDF$ intersects at another point $P$ other than $D$. Prove that there exists a fixed point $Q$, such that the length of $QP$ is constant.

Let $\omega_1,\omega_2$ be two non-intersecting circles, with circumcenters $O_1,O_2$ respectively, and radii $r_1,r_2$ respectively where $r_1 < r_2$. Let $AB,XY$ be the two internal common tangents of $\omega_1,\omega_2$, where $A,X$ lie on $\omega_1$, $B,Y$ lie on $\omega_2$. The circle with diameter $AB$ meets $\omega_1,\omega_2$ at $P$ and $Q$ respectively. If $$\angle AO_1P+\angle BO_2Q=180^{\circ},$$find the value of $\frac{PX}{QY}$ (in terms of $r_1,r_2$).

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle BAC > 90 ^{\circ}$, and let $O$ be its circumcenter and $\omega$ be its circumcircle. The tangent line of $\omega$ at $A$ intersects the tangent line of $\omega$ at $B$ and $C$ respectively at point $P$ and $Q$. Let $D,E$ be the feet of the altitudes from $P,Q$ onto $BC$, respectively. $F,G$ are two points on $\overline{PQ}$ different from $A$, so that $A,F,B,E$ and $A,G,C,D$ are both concyclic. Let M be the midpoint of $\overline{DE}$. Prove that $DF,OM,EG$ are concurrent.

In isosceles $\triangle ABC$, $AB=AC$, points $D,E,F$ lie on segments $BC,AC,AB$ such that $DE\parallel AB$, $DF\parallel AC$. The circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ $\omega_1$ and the circumcircle of $\triangle AEF$ $\omega_2$ intersect at $A,G$. Let $DE$ meet $\omega_2$ at $K\neq E$. Points $L,M$ lie on $\omega_1,\omega_2$ respectively such that $LG\perp KG, MG\perp CG$. Let $P,Q$ be the circumcenters of $\triangle DGL$ and $\triangle DGM$ respectively. Prove that $A,G,P,Q$ are concyclic.

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