India 1986 - 2019 (INMO) 66p

geometry problems from Indian Mathematical Olympiads (INMO)
with aops links in the names

1986 - 2019

1986 INMO problem 3
Two circles with radii a and b respectively touch each other externally. Let c be the radius of a circle that touches these two circles as well as a common tangent to the two circles. Prove that
$\frac{1}{\sqrt{c}}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{a}}+\frac{1}{\sqrt{b}}$

1986 INMO problem 6
Construct a quadrilateral which is not a parallelogram, in which a pair of opposite angles and a pair of opposite sides are equal.

1986 INMO problem 9
Show that among all quadrilaterals of a given perimeter the square has the largest area.

1987 INMO problem 7
Construct the $\triangle ABC$, given $h_a$, $h_b$ (the altitudes from $A$ and $B$) and $m_a$, the median from the vertex $A$.

1987 INMO problem 8
Three congruent circles have a common point $O$ and lie inside a given triangle. Each circle touches a pair of sides of the triangle. Prove that the incentre and the circumcentre of the triangle and the common point $O$ are collinear.

1987 INMO problem 9
Prove that any triangle having two equal internal angle bisectors (each measured from a vertex to the opposite side) is isosceles.

1988 INMO problem 7
Given an angle $\angle QBP$ and a point $L$ outside the angle $\angle QBP$. Draw a straight line through $L$ meeting $BQ$ in $A$ and $BP$ in $C$ such that the triangle $\triangle ABC$ has a given perimeter.

A river flows between two houses $A$ and $B$, the houses standing some distances away from the banks. Where should a bridge be built on the river so that a person going from $A$ to $B$, using the bridge to cross the river may do so by the shortest path? Assume that the banks of the river are straight and parallel, and the bridge must be perpendicular to the banks.

1988 INMO problem 9
Show that for a triangle with radii of circumcircle and incircle equal to $R$, $r$ respectively, the inequality $R \geq 2r$ holds.

1989 INMO problem 6
Triangle $ABC$ has incentre $I$ and the incircle touches $BC, CA$ at $D, E$ respectively. Let $BI$ meet $DE$ at $G$. Show that $AG$ is perpendicular to $BG$.

Let $A$ be one of the two points of intersection of two circles with centers $X, Y$ respectively.The tangents at $A$ to the two circles meet the circles again at $B, C$. Let a point $P$ be located so that $PXAY$ is a parallelogram. Show that $P$ is also the circumcenter of triangle $ABC$.

1990 INMO problem 6
Triangle $ABC$ is scalene with angle $A$ having a measure greater than 90 degrees. Determine
the set of points $D$ that lie on the extended line $BC$, for which $|AD|=\sqrt{|BD| \cdot |CD|}$
where $|BD|$ refers to the (positive) distance between $B$ and $D$.

1990 INMO problem 7
Let $ABC$ be an arbitrary acute angled triangle. For any point $P$ lying within the triangle, let
$D$, $E$, $F$ denote the feet of the perpendiculars from $P$ onto the sides $AB$, $BC$, $CA$ respectively. Determine the set of all possible positions of the point $P$ for which the triangle $DEF$ is isosceles. For which position of $P$ will the triangle $DEF$ become equilateral?

1991 INMO problem 2
Given an acute-angled triangle $ABC$, let points $A' , B' , C'$ be located as follows:  $A'$ is the point where altitude from $A$ on $BC$ meets the outwards-facing semicircle on $BC$ as diameter. Points $B', C'$ are located similarly. Prove that $A[BCA']^2 + A[CAB']^2 + A[ABC']^2 = A[ABC]^2$ where $A[ABC]$ is the area of triangle $ABC$.

1991 INMO problem 5
Triangle $ABC$ has an incenter $I$. Let points $X$, $Y$ be located on the line segments $AB$, $AC$ respectively, so that $BX \cdot AB = IB^2$ and $CY \cdot AC = IC^2$. Given that the points $X, I, Y$ lie on a straight line, find the possible values of the measure of angle $A$.

1991 INMO problem 9
Triangle $ABC$ has an incenter $I$ l its incircle touches the side $BC$ at $T$. The line through $T$ parallel to $IA$ meets the incircle again at $S$ and the tangent to the incircle at $S$ meets $AB , AC$ at points $C' , B'$ respectively. Prove that triangle $AB'C'$ is similar to triangle $ABC$.

1992 INMO problem 1
In a triangle $ABC$, $\angle A = 2 \cdot \angle B$. Prove that $a^2 = b (b+c)$.

1992 INMO problem 5
Two circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ intersect at two distinct points $P, Q$ in a plane. Let a line passing through $P$ meet the circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ in $A$ and $B$ respectively. Let $Y$ be the midpoint of $AB$ and let $QY$ meet the cirlces $C_1$ and $C_2$ in $X$ and $Z$ respectively. Show that $Y$ is also the midpoint of $XZ$.
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1992 INMO problem 9
Let $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_n$ be an $n$ -sided regular polygon. If $\frac{1}{A_1 A_2} = \frac{1}{A_1 A_3} + \frac{1}{A_1A_4}$, find $n$.

1993 INMO problem 1
The diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ of a cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$ intersect at $P$. Let $O$ be the circumcenter of triangle $APB$ and $H$ be the orthocenter of triangle $CPD$. Show that the points $H,P,O$ are collinear.

1993 INMO problem 4
Let $ABC$ be a triangle in a plane $\pi$. Find the set of all points $P$ (distinct from $A,B,C$ ) in the plane $\pi$ such that the circumcircles of triangles $ABP$, $BCP$, $CAP$ have the same radii.

1993 INMO problem 6
Let $ABC$ be a triangle right-angled at $A$ and $S$ be its circumcircle. Let $S_1$ be the circle touching the lines $AB$ and $AC$, and the circle $S$ internally. Further, let $S_2$ be the circle touching the lines $AB$ and $AC$ and the circle $S$ externally. If $r_1, r_2$ be the radii of $S_1, S_2$ prove that $r_1 \cdot r_2 = 4 A[ABC]$.

Show that there exists a convex hexagon in the plane such that
(i) all its interior angles are equal;
(ii) its sides are $1,2,3,4,5,6$ in some order.

1994 INMO problem 1
Let $G$ be the centroid of the triangle $ABC$ in which the angle at $C$ is obtuse and $AD$ and $CF$ be the medians from $A$ and $C$ respectively onto the sides $BC$ and $AB$. If the points $\ B,\ D, \ G$ and $\ F$ are concyclic, show that $\dfrac{AC}{BC} \geq \sqrt{2}$. If further $P$ is a point on the line $BG$ extended such that $AGCP$ is a parallelogram, show that triangle $ABC$ and $GAP$ are similar.

1994 INMO problem 5
A circle passes through the vertex of a rectangle $ABCD$ and touches its sides $AB$ and $AD$ at $M$ and $N$ respectively. If the distance from $C$ to the line segment $MN$ is equal to $5$ units, find the area of rectangle $ABCD$.

1995 INMO problem 1
In an acute angled triangle $ABC$, $\angle A = 30^{\circ}$, $H$ is the orthocenter, and $M$ is the midpoint of $BC$. On the line $HM$, take a point $T$ such that $HM = MT$. Show that $AT = 2 BC$.

1995 INMO problem 4
Let $ABC$ be a triangle and a circle $\Gamma'$ be drawn lying outside the triangle, touching its incircle $\Gamma$  externally, and also the two sides $AB$ and $AC$. Show that the ratio of the radii of the circles $\Gamma'$ and $\Gamma$ is equal to $\tan^ 2 { \left( \dfrac{ \pi - A }{4} \right) }.$

1996 INMO problem 2
Let $C_1$ and $C_2$ be two concentric circles in the plane with radii $R$ and $3R$ respectively. Show that the orthocenter of any triangle inscribed in circle $C_1$ lies in the interior of circle $C_2$. Conversely, show that every point in the interior of $C_2$ is the orthocenter of some triangle inscribed in $C_1$.

1997 INMO problem 1
Let $ABCD$ be a parallelogram. Suppose a line passing through $C$ and lying outside the parallelogram meets $AB$ and $AD$ produced at $E$ and $F$ respectively. Show that $AC^2 + CE \cdot CF = AB \cdot AE + AD \cdot AF .$

1998 INMO problem 1
In a circle $C_1$ with centre $O$, let $AB$ be a chord that is not a diameter. Let $M$ be the midpoint of this chord $AB$. Take a point $T$ on the circle $C_2$ with $OM$ as diameter. Let the tangent to $C_2$ at $T$ meet $C_1$ at  $P$. Show that $PA^2 + PB^2 = 4 \cdot PT^2$.

1998 INMO problem 4
Suppose $ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in a circle of radius one unit. If $AB \cdot BC \cdot CD \cdot DA \geq 4$, prove that $ABCD$ is a square.[

1999 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle in which $D,E,F$ are points on $BC,CA,AB$ respectively such that $AD \perp BC$;$AE = BC$;  and $CF$ bisects $\angle C$ internally, Suppose $CF$ meets $AD$ and $DE$ in $M$ and $N$ respectively. If $FM$$= 2$, $MN =1$, $NC=3$, find the perimeter of $\Delta ABC$.

1999 INMO problem 4
Let $\Gamma$ and $\Gamma'$ be two concentric circles. Let $ABC$ and $A'B'C'$ be any two equilateral triangles inscribed in $\Gamma$ and $\Gamma'$ respectively. If $P$ and $P'$ are any two points on $\Gamma$ and $\Gamma'$ respectively, show that $P'A^2 + P'B^2 + P'C^2 = A'P^2 + B'P^2 + C'P^2.$

2000 INMO problem 1
The incircle of $ABC$ touches $BC$, $CA$, $AB$ at $K$, $L$, $M$ respectively. The line through $A$ parallel to $LK$ meets $MK$ at $P$, and the line through $A$ parallel to $MK$ meets $LK$ at $Q$. Show that the line $PQ$ bisects $AB$ and bisects $AC$.

2000 INMO problem 4
In a convex quadrilateral $PQRS$, $PQ =RS$, $(\sqrt{3} +1 )QR = SP$ and $\angle RSP - \angle SQP = 30^{\circ}$. Prove that $\angle PQR - \angle QRS = 90^{\circ}.$

2001 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle in which no angle is $90^{\circ}$. For any point $P$ in the plane of the triangle, let $A_1, B_1, C_1$ denote the reflections of $P$ in the sides $BC,CA,AB$ respectively. Prove that
i) If $P$ is the incenter or an excentre of $ABC$, then $P$ is the circumenter of $A_1B_1C_1$;
ii)  If $P$ is the circumcentre of $ABC$, then $P$ is the orthocentre of $A_1B_1C_1$;
iii) If $P$ is the orthocentre of $ABC$, then $P$ is either the incentre or an excentre of $A_1B_1C_1$.

2001 INMO problem 5
$ABC$ is a triangle. $D$ is the midpoint of $BC$. $\angle DAB = \angle C$, and $\angle DAC = 15^{\circ}$. Show that $\angle ADC$ is obtuse. If $O$ is the circumcenter of $ADC$, show that $AOD$ is equilateral.

2002 INMO problem 1
For a convex hexagon $ABCDEF$ in which each pair of opposite sides is unequal, consider the following statements.
($a_1$) $AB // DE$.
($a_2$)$AE = BD$.
($b_1$) $BC // EF$.
($b_2$)$BF = CE$.
($c_1$) $CD // FA$.
($c_2$) $CA = DF$.
(a) Show that if all six of these statements are true then the hexagon is cyclic.
(b) Prove that, in fact, five of the six statements suffice.

2003 INMO problem 1
Let $P$ be an interior point of an acute-angled triangle $ABC$. The line $BP$ meets the line $AC$ at $E$, and the line $CP$ meets the line $AB$ at $F$. The lines $AP$ and $EF$ intersect each other at $D$. Let $K$ be the foot of the perpendicular from the point $D$ to the line $BC$. Show that the line $KD$ bisects the angle $\angle EKF$.

2004 INMO problem 1
$ABCD$ is a convex quadrilateral. $K$, $L$, $M$, $N$ are the midpoints of the sides $AB$, $BC$, $CD$, $DA$. $BD$ bisects $KM$ at $Q$. $QA = QB = QC = QD$ , and$\frac{LK}{LM} = \frac{CD}{CB}$. Prove that $ABCD$ is a square.

Let $M$ be the midpoint of side $BC$ of a triangle $ABC$. Let the median $AM$ intersect the incircle of $ABC$ at $K$ and $L,K$ being nearer to $A$ than $L$. If $AK = KL = LM$, prove that the sides of triangle $ABC$ are in the ratio $5 : 10 : 13$ in some order.

2006 INMO problem 1
In a non equilateral triangle $ABC$ the sides $a,b,c$ form an arithmetic progression. Let $I$ be the incentre and $O$ the circumcentre of the triangle $ABC$. Prove that
a) $IO$ is perpendicular to $BI$;
b) If $BI$ meets $AC$ in $K$, and $D$, $E$ are the midpoints of $BC$, $BA$ respectively then $I$ is the circumcentre of triangle $DKE$.

2007 INMO problem 1
In a triangle $ABC$ right-angled at $C$ , the median through $B$ bisects the angle between $BA$ and the bisector of $\angle B$. Prove that $\frac{5}{2} < \frac{AB}{BC} < 3$

2008 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be triangle, $I$ its in-center; $A_1,B_1,C_1$ be the reflections of $I$ in $BC, CA, AB$ respectively. Suppose the circum-circle of triangle $A_1B_1C_1$ passes through $A$. Prove that $B_1,C_1,I,I_1$ are concylic, where $I_1$ is the in-center of triangle $A_1,B_1,C_1$.

2008 INMO problem 5
Let $ABC$ be a triangle; $\Gamma_A,\Gamma_B,\Gamma_C$ be three equal, disjoint circles inside $ABC$ such that $\Gamma_A$ touches $AB$ and $AC$; $\Gamma_B$ touches $AB$ and $BC$; and $\Gamma_C$ touches $BC$ and $CA$. Let $\Gamma$ be a circle touching circles $\Gamma_A, \Gamma_B, \Gamma_C$ externally. Prove that the line joining the circum-centre $O$ and the in-centre $I$ of triangle $ABC$ passes through the centre of $\Gamma$.

2009 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a tringle and let $P$ be an interior point such that $\angle BPC = 90 ,\angle BAP = \angle BCP$.Let $M,N$ be the mid points of $AC,BC$ respectively.Suppose $BP = 2PM$.Prove that $A,P,N$ are collinear.

2010 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circum-circle $\Gamma$. Let $M$ be a point in the interior of triangle $ABC$ which is also on the bisector of $\angle A$. Let $AM, BM, CM$ meet $\Gamma$ in $A_{1}, B_{1}, C_{1}$ respectively. Suppose $P$ is the point of intersection of $A_{1}C_{1}$ with $AB$; and $Q$ is the point of intersection of $A_{1}B_{1}$ with $AC$. Prove that $PQ$ is parallel to $BC$.

2010 INMO problem 5
Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle with altitude $AK$. Let $H$ be its ortho-centre and $O$ be its circum-centre. Suppose $KOH$ is an acute-angled triangle and $P$ its circum-centre. Let $Q$ be the reflection of $P$ in the line $HO$. Show that $Q$ lies on the line joining the mid-points of $AB$ and $AC$.

2011 INMO problem 1
Let $D,E,F$ be points on the sides $BC,CA,AB$ respectively of a triangle $ABC$ such that $BD=CE=AF$ and $\angle BDF=\angle CED=\angle AFE.$ Show that $\triangle ABC$ is equilateral.

2011 INMO problem 5
Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in a circle $\Gamma.$ Let $E,F,G,H$ be the midpoints of arcs $AB,BC,CD,AD$ of $\Gamma,$ respectively. Suppose that $AC\cdot BD=EG\cdot FH.$ Show that $AC,BD,EG,FH$ are all concurrent.

Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Suppose $AB=\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}$ and $AB$ subtends $135$ degrees at center of circle . Find the maximum possible area of $ABCD$.

Let $ABC$ be an acute angled triangle. Let $D,E,F$ be points on $BC, CA, AB$ such that $AD$ is the median, $BE$ is the internal bisector and $CF$ is the altitude. Suppose that $\angle FDE=\angle C, \angle DEF=\angle A$ and $\angle EFD=\angle B.$ Show that $ABC$ is equilateral.

2013 INMO problem 1
Let $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ be two circles touching each other externally at $R.$ Let $O_1$ and $O_2$ be the centres of $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2,$ respectively. Let $\ell_1$ be a line which is tangent to $\Gamma_2$ at $P$ and passing through $O_1,$ and let $\ell_2$ be the line tangent to $\Gamma_1$ at $Q$ and passing through $O_2.$ Let $K=\ell_1\cap \ell_2.$ If $KP=KQ$ then prove that the triangle $PQR$ is equilateral.

2013 INMO problem 5
In an acute triangle $ABC,$ let $O,G,H$ be its circumcentre, centroid and orthocenter. Let $D\in BC, E\in CA$ and $OD\perp BC, HE\perp CA.$ Let $F$ be the midpoint of $AB.$ If the triangles $ODC, HEA, GFB$ have the same area, find all the possible values of $\angle C.$

2014 INMO problem 1
In a triangle $ABC$, let $D$ be the point on the segment $BC$ such that $AB+BD=AC+CD$. Suppose that the points $B$, $C$ and the centroids  of triangles $ABD$ and $ACD$ lie on a circle. Prove that $AB=AC$.

2014 INMO problem 5
In a acute-angled triangle $ABC$, a point $D$ lies on the segment $BC$. Let $O_1,O_2$ denote the circumcentres of triangles $ABD$ and $ACD$ respectively. Prove that the line joining the circumcentre of triangle $ABC$ and the orthocentre of triangle $O_1O_2D$ is parallel to $BC$.

2015 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a right-angled triangle with $\angle{B}=90^{\circ}$. Let $BD$ is the altitude from $B$ on $AC$. Let $P,Q$ and $I$be the incenters of triangles $ABD,CBD$ and $ABC$ respectively.Show that circumcenter of triangle $PIQ$ lie on the hypotenuse $AC$.

2015 INMO problem 5
Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral.Let diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ intersect at $P$. Let $PE,PF,PG$ and $PH$ are altitudes from $P$ on the side $AB,BC,CD$ and $DA$ respectively. Show that $ABCD$ has a incircle if and only if $\frac{1}{PE}+\frac{1}{PG}=\frac{1}{PF}+\frac{1}{PH}.$

2016 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle in which $AB=AC$. Suppose the orthocentre of the triangle lies on the incircle. Find the ratio $\frac{AB}{BC}$.

2016 INMO problem 5
Let $ABC$ be a right-angle triangle with $\angle B=90^{\circ}$. Let $D$ be a point on $AC$ such that the inradii of the triangles $ABD$ and $CBD$ are equal. If this common value is $r^{\prime}$ and if $r$ is the inradius of triangle $ABC$, prove that $\cfrac{1}{r'}=\cfrac{1}{r}+\cfrac{1}{BD}.$

2017 INMO problem 1
In the given figure, $ABCD$ is a square sheet of paper. It is folded along $EF$ such that $A$ goes to a point $A'$ different from $B$ and $C$, on the side $BC$ and $D$ goes to $D'$. The line $A'D'$ cuts $CD$ in $G$. Show that the inradius of the triangle $GCA'$ is the sum of the inradii of the triangles $GD'F$ and $A'BE$.

2017 INMO problem 5
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle{A}=90^{\circ}$ and $AB<AC$. Let $AD$ be the altitude from $A$ on to $BC$, Let $P,Q$ and $I$ denote respectively the incentres of triangle $ABD,ACD$ and $ABC$. Prove that $AI$ is perpendicular to $PQ$ and $AI=PQ$.

2018 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a non-equilateral triangle with integer sides. Let $D$ and $E$ be respectively the mid-points of $BC$ and $CA$ ; let $G$ be the centroid of $\Delta{ABC}$. Suppose, $D$, $C$, $E$, $G$ are concyclic. Find the least possible perimeter of $\Delta{ABC}$.

2018 INMO problem 3
Let $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ be two circles with respective centres $O_1$ and $O_2$ intersecting in two distinct points $A$ and $B$ such that $\angle{O_1AO_2}$ is an obtuse angle. Let the circumcircle of $\Delta{O_1AO_2}$ intersect $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ respectively in points $C (\neq A)$ and $D (\neq A)$. Let the line $CB$ intersect $\Gamma_2$ in $E$ ; let the line $DB$ intersect $\Gamma_1$ in $F$. Prove that, the points $C, D, E, F$ are concyclic.

2019 INMO problem 1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle{BAC} > 90$. Let $D$ be a point on the segment $BC$ and $E$ be a point on line $AD$ such that $AB$ is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle $ACD$ at $A$ and $BE$ is perpendicular to $AD$. Given that $CA=CD$ and $AE=CE$. Determine $\angle{BCA}$ in degrees.

Let $AB$ be the diameter of a circle $\Gamma$ and let $C$ be a point on $\Gamma$ different from $A$ and $B$. Let $D$ be the foot of perpendicular from $C$ on to $AB$.Let $K$ be a point on the segment $CD$ such that $AC$ is equal to the semi perimeter of $ADK$.Show that the excircle of $ADK$ opposite $A$ is tangent to $\Gamma$.