geometry problems from Cono Sur Olympiad (Cone Sul) and a few shortlists (2003,2005,2009,2012)

with aops links in the names

in 1990 this contest did not take place

Cono Sur 2015 P4

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral such that $\angle{BAD} = 90^{\circ}$ and its diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular. Let $M$ be the midpoint of side $CD$, and $E$ be the intersection of $BM$ and $AC$. Let $F$ be a point on side $AD$ such that $BM$ and $EF$ are perpendicular. If $CE = AF\sqrt{2}$ and $FD = CE\sqrt{2}$, show that $ABCD$ is a square.

with aops links in the names

OLIMPÍADA
DE MATEMÁTICA DO CONE SUL

1989 - 2019

Two isosceles triangles with sidelengths $x,x,a$ and $x,x,b$ ($a \neq b$) have equal areas. Find $x$.

Let $ABCD$ be a square with diagonals $AC$ and $BD$, and $P$ a point in one of the sides of the square. Show that the sum of the distances from P to the diagonals is constant.

Show that reducing the dimensions of a cuboid we can't get another cuboid with half the volume and half the surface.

in 1990 this contest did not take place

Let $A, B$ and $C$ be three non-collinear points and $E$ ($\ne B$) an arbitrary point not in the straight line $AC$. Construct the parallelograms $ABCD$ and $AECF$. Prove that $BE \parallel DF$.

Cono Sur 1991 P5

Given a square $ABCD$ with side $1$, and a square inside $ABCD$ with side $x$, find (in terms of $x$) the radio $r$ of the circle tangent to two sides of $ABCD$ and touches the square with side $x$. (See picture).

Given a square $ABCD$ with side $1$, and a square inside $ABCD$ with side $x$, find (in terms of $x$) the radio $r$ of the circle tangent to two sides of $ABCD$ and touches the square with side $x$. (See picture).

Cono Sur 1992 P2

Let $P$ be a point outside the circle $C$. Find two points $Q$ and $R$ on the circle, such that $P,Q$ and $R$ are collinear and $Q$ is the midpopint of the segmenet $PR$. (Discuss the number of solutions).

Let $P$ be a point outside the circle $C$. Find two points $Q$ and $R$ on the circle, such that $P,Q$ and $R$ are collinear and $Q$ is the midpopint of the segmenet $PR$. (Discuss the number of solutions).

Cono Sur 1992 P5

In a $\triangle {ABC}$, consider a point $E$ in $BC$ such that $AE \perp BC$. Prove that $AE=\frac{bc}{2r}$, where $r$ is the radio of the circle circumscripte, $b=AC$ and $c=AB$.

In a $\triangle {ABC}$, consider a point $E$ in $BC$ such that $AE \perp BC$. Prove that $AE=\frac{bc}{2r}$, where $r$ is the radio of the circle circumscripte, $b=AC$ and $c=AB$.

Cono Sur 1993 P2

Consider a circle with centre $O$, and $3$ points on it, $A,B$ and $C$, such that $\angle {AOB}< \angle {BOC}$. Let $D$ be the midpoint on the arc $AC$ that contains the point $B$. Consider a point $K$ on $BC$ such that $DK \perp BC$. Prove that $AB+BK=KC$.

Consider a circle with centre $O$, and $3$ points on it, $A,B$ and $C$, such that $\angle {AOB}< \angle {BOC}$. Let $D$ be the midpoint on the arc $AC$ that contains the point $B$. Consider a point $K$ on $BC$ such that $DK \perp BC$. Prove that $AB+BK=KC$.

Cono Sur 1994 P2

Consider a circle $C$ with diameter $AB=1$. A point $P_0$ is chosen on $C$, $P_0 \ne A$, and starting in $P_0$ a sequence of points $P_1, P_2, \dots, P_n, \dots$ is constructed on $C$, in the following way: $Q_n$ is the symmetrical point of $A$ with respect of $P_n$ and the straight line that joins $B$ and $Q_n$ cuts $C$ at $B$ and $P_{n+1}$ (not necessary different). Prove that it is possible to choose $P_0$ such that:

i) $\angle {P_0AB} < 1$.

ii) In the sequence that starts with $P_0$ there are $2$ points, $P_k$ and $P_j$, such that $\triangle {AP_kP_j}$ is equilateral.

Cono Sur 1994 P6

Consider a circle $C$ with diameter $AB=1$. A point $P_0$ is chosen on $C$, $P_0 \ne A$, and starting in $P_0$ a sequence of points $P_1, P_2, \dots, P_n, \dots$ is constructed on $C$, in the following way: $Q_n$ is the symmetrical point of $A$ with respect of $P_n$ and the straight line that joins $B$ and $Q_n$ cuts $C$ at $B$ and $P_{n+1}$ (not necessary different). Prove that it is possible to choose $P_0$ such that:

i) $\angle {P_0AB} < 1$.

ii) In the sequence that starts with $P_0$ there are $2$ points, $P_k$ and $P_j$, such that $\triangle {AP_kP_j}$ is equilateral.

Cono Sur 1994 P6

Consider a $\triangle {ABC}$, with $AC \perp BC$. Consider a point $D$ on $AB$ such that $CD=k$, and the radius of the inscribe circles on $\triangle {ADC}$ and $\triangle {CDB}$ are equals. Prove that the area of $\triangle {ABC}$ is equal to $k^2$.

Cono Sur 1995 P3

Let $ABCD$ be a rectangle with: $AB=a$, $BC=b$. Inside the rectangle we have to exteriorly tangents circles such that one is tangent to the sides $AB$ and $AD$,the other is tangent to the sides $CB$ and $CD$.

1. Find the distance between the centers of the circles(using $a$ and $b$).

2. When the radiums of both circles change the tangency point between both of them changes, and describes a locus. Find that locus.

Cono Sur 1995 P5

Let $ABCD$ be a rectangle with: $AB=a$, $BC=b$. Inside the rectangle we have to exteriorly tangents circles such that one is tangent to the sides $AB$ and $AD$,the other is tangent to the sides $CB$ and $CD$.

1. Find the distance between the centers of the circles(using $a$ and $b$).

2. When the radiums of both circles change the tangency point between both of them changes, and describes a locus. Find that locus.

Cono Sur 1995 P5

The semicircle with centre $O$ and the diameter $AC$ is divided in two arcs $AB$ and $BC$ with ratio $1: 3$. $M$ is the midpoint of the radium $OC$. Let $T$ be the point of arc $BC$ such that the area of the cuadrylateral $OBTM$ is maximum. Find such area in fuction of the radium.

Cono Sur 1996 P1

In the following figure, the largest square is divided into two squares and three rectangles, as shown:

The area of each smaller square is equal to $a$ and the area of each minor rectangle is equal to $b$. If $a+b=24 $ and the root square from $a$ is a natural number, find all possible values for the area of the largest square.

Find all integers $n \leq 3$ such that there is a set $S_n$ formed by $n$ points of the plane that satisfy the following two conditions:

Cono Sur 1996 P1

In the following figure, the largest square is divided into two squares and three rectangles, as shown:

The area of each smaller square is equal to $a$ and the area of each minor rectangle is equal to $b$. If $a+b=24 $ and the root square from $a$ is a natural number, find all possible values for the area of the largest square.

- Any three points are not collinear.
- No point is found inside the circle whose diameter has ends at any two points of $S_n$.

Let $O$ be a center of a circle $C$, $AB$ a diameter of it and $R$ any point in $C$ different than $A$ and $B$. Let $P$ be the intersection of the perpendicular drawn from $O$ to $AR$. On the line $OP$ is marked the point $Q$, so that $QP$ is half of $PO$ and $Q$ does not belong to the segment $OP$. By $Q$ we draw the parallel to $AB$ that cuts the line $AR$ in $T$. We call $H$ the point of intersection of the lines $AQ$ and $OT$. Prove that $H$, $R$ and $B$ are collinear.

Let $ABC$ be a acute-angle triangle and $X$ be point in the plane of this triangle. Let $M,N,P$ be the orthogonal projections of $X$ in the lines that contains the altitudes of this triangle. Determine the positions of the point $X$ such that the triangle $MNP$ is congruent to $ABC$.

Cono Sur 1998 P2

Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC, M is the midpoint of the segment BC. Let X be the point of the intersection of the line HM with arc BC(without A) of the circumcircle of ABC, let Y be the point of intersection of the line BH with the circle, show that XY = BC.

Cono Sur 1998 P2

Let H be the orthocenter of the triangle ABC, M is the midpoint of the segment BC. Let X be the point of the intersection of the line HM with arc BC(without A) of the circumcircle of ABC, let Y be the point of intersection of the line BH with the circle, show that XY = BC.

Cono Sur 1998 P2

Let $ABC$ be a triangle right in $A$. Construct a point $P$ on the hypotenuse $BC$ such that if $Q$ is the foor of the perpendicular drawn from $P$ to side $AC$, then the area of the square of side $PQ$ is equal to the area of the rectangle of sides $PB$ and $PC$. Show construction steps.

Cono Sur 2000 P4

In square $ABCD$ (labeled clockwise), let $P$ be any point on $BC$ and construct square $APRS$ (labeled clockwise). Prove that line $CR$ is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle $ABC$.

In square $ABCD$ (labeled clockwise), let $P$ be any point on $BC$ and construct square $APRS$ (labeled clockwise). Prove that line $CR$ is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle $ABC$.

Cono Sur 2001 P3

Three acute triangles are inscribed in the same circle with their vertices being nine distinct points. Show that one can choose a vertex from each triangle so that the three chosen points determine a triangle each of whose angles is at most $90^\circ$.

Three acute triangles are inscribed in the same circle with their vertices being nine distinct points. Show that one can choose a vertex from each triangle so that the three chosen points determine a triangle each of whose angles is at most $90^\circ$.

A polygon of area $S$ is contained inside a square of side length $a$. Show that there are two points of the polygon that are a distance of at least $S/a$ apart.

Cono Sur 2002 P4

Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that your diagonals AC and BD are perpendiculars. Let P be the intersection of AC and BD, let M a midpoint of AB. Prove that the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic, if and only if, the lines PM and DC are perpendicular.

Cono Sur 2000 P2

Given a triangle $ABC$, with right $\angle A$, we know: the point $T$ of tangency of the circumference inscribed in $ABC$ with the hypotenuse $BC$, the point $D$ of intersection of the angle bisector of $\angle B$ with side AC and the point E of intersection of the angle bisector of $\angle C$ with side $AB$ . Describe a construction with ruler and compass for points $A$, $B$, and $C$. Justify.

Given a triangle $ABC$, with right $\angle A$, we know: the point $T$ of tangency of the circumference inscribed in $ABC$ with the hypotenuse $BC$, the point $D$ of intersection of the angle bisector of $\angle B$ with side AC and the point E of intersection of the angle bisector of $\angle C$ with side $AB$ . Describe a construction with ruler and compass for points $A$, $B$, and $C$. Justify.

Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that your diagonals AC and BD are perpendiculars. Let P be the intersection of AC and BD, let M a midpoint of AB. Prove that the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic, if and only if, the lines PM and DC are perpendicular.

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle such that $\angle{B}=60$. The circle with diameter $AC$ intersects the internal angle bisectors of $A$ and $C$ at the points $M$ and $N$, respectively $(M\neq{A},$ $N\neq{C})$. The internal bisector of $\angle{B}$ intersects $MN$ and $AC$ at the points $R$ and $S$, respectively. Prove that $BR\leq{RS}$.

In an acute triangle $ABC$, the points $H$, $G$, and $M$ are located on $BC$ in such a way that $AH$, $AG$, and $AM$ are the height, angle bisector, and median of the triangle, respectively. It is known that $HG=GM$, $AB=10$, and $AC=14$. Find the area of triangle $ABC$.
Given a circle $C$ and a point $P$ on its exterior, two tangents to the circle are drawn through $P$, with $A$ and $B$ being the points of tangency. We take a point $Q$ on the minor arc $AB$ of $C$. Let $M$ be the intersection of $AQ$ with the line perpendicular to $AQ$ that goes through $P$, and let $N$ be the intersection of $BQ$ with the line perpendicular to $BQ$ that goes through $P$.

Show that, by varying $Q$ on the minor arc $AB$, all of the lines $MN$ pass through the same point.

Show that, by varying $Q$ on the minor arc $AB$, all of the lines $MN$ pass through the same point.

Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle and let $AN$, $BM$ and $CP$ the altitudes with respect to the sides $BC$, $CA$ and $AB$, respectively. Let $R$, $S$ be the pojections of $N$ on the sides $AB$, $CA$, respectively, and let $Q$, $W$ be the projections of $N$ on the altitudes $BM$ and $CP$, respectively.

(a) Show that $R$, $Q$, $W$, $S$ are collinear.

(b) Show that $MP=RS-QW$.

Cono Sur 2005 P4

Let $ABC$ be a isosceles triangle, with $AB=AC$. A line $r$ that pass through the incenter $I$ of $ABC$ touches the sides $AB$ and $AC$ at the points $D$ and $E$, respectively. Let $F$ and $G$ be points on $BC$ such that $BF=CE$ and $CG=BD$. Show that the angle $\angle FIG$ is constant when we vary the line $r$.

(a) Show that $R$, $Q$, $W$, $S$ are collinear.

(b) Show that $MP=RS-QW$.

Cono Sur 2005 P4

Let $ABC$ be a isosceles triangle, with $AB=AC$. A line $r$ that pass through the incenter $I$ of $ABC$ touches the sides $AB$ and $AC$ at the points $D$ and $E$, respectively. Let $F$ and $G$ be points on $BC$ such that $BF=CE$ and $CG=BD$. Show that the angle $\angle FIG$ is constant when we vary the line $r$.

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral, let $E$ and $F$ be the midpoints of the sides $AD$ and $BC$, respectively. The segment $CE$ meets $DF$ in $O$. Show that if the lines $AO$ and $BO$ divide the side $CD$ in 3 equal parts, then $ABCD$ is a parallelogram.

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with altitudes $AD$, $BE$, $CF$ where $D$, $E$, $F$ lie on $BC$, $AC$, $AB$, respectively. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$. The circumcircle of triangle $AEF$ cuts the line $AM$ at $A$ and $X$. The line $AM$ cuts the line $CF$ at $Y$. Let $Z$ be the point of intersection of $AD$ and $BX$. Show that the lines $YZ$ and $BC$ are parallel.

Cono Sur 2007 P5

Let $ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon that satisfies all of the following:

(b) Give an example of a pentagon satisfying the given conditions.

Let $ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon that satisfies all of the following:

- There is a circle $\Gamma$ tangent to each of the sides.
- The lengths of the sides are all positive integers.
- At least one of the sides of the pentagon has length $1$.
- The side $AB$ has length $2$.

(b) Give an example of a pentagon satisfying the given conditions.

Cono Sur 2008 P2

Let $P$ be a point in the interior of triangle $ABC$. Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be points on sides $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$ respectively, such that $<PXC=<PYA=<PZB$. Let $U$, $V$, and $W$ be points on sides $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$, respectively, or on their extensions if necessary, with $X$ in between $B$ and $U$, $Y$ in between $C$ and $V$, and $Z$ in between $A$ and $W$, such that $PU=2PX$, $PV=2PY$, and $PW=2PZ$. If the area of triangle $XYZ$ is $1$, find the area of triangle $UVW$.

Cono Sur 2008 P5

Let $ABC$ be an isosceles triangle with base $AB$. A semicircle $\Gamma$ is constructed with its center on the segment AB and which is tangent to the two legs, $AC$ and $BC$. Consider a line tangent to $\Gamma$ which cuts the segments $AC$ and $BC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively. The line perpendicular to $AC$ at $D$ and the line perpendicular to $BC$ at $E$ intersect each other at $P$. Let $Q$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to $AB$. Show that $\frac{PQ}{CP}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{AB}{AC}$.

Let $P$ be a point in the interior of triangle $ABC$. Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be points on sides $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$ respectively, such that $<PXC=<PYA=<PZB$. Let $U$, $V$, and $W$ be points on sides $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$, respectively, or on their extensions if necessary, with $X$ in between $B$ and $U$, $Y$ in between $C$ and $V$, and $Z$ in between $A$ and $W$, such that $PU=2PX$, $PV=2PY$, and $PW=2PZ$. If the area of triangle $XYZ$ is $1$, find the area of triangle $UVW$.

Cono Sur 2008 P5

Let $ABC$ be an isosceles triangle with base $AB$. A semicircle $\Gamma$ is constructed with its center on the segment AB and which is tangent to the two legs, $AC$ and $BC$. Consider a line tangent to $\Gamma$ which cuts the segments $AC$ and $BC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively. The line perpendicular to $AC$ at $D$ and the line perpendicular to $BC$ at $E$ intersect each other at $P$. Let $Q$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to $AB$. Show that $\frac{PQ}{CP}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{AB}{AC}$.

Cono Sur 2009 P3

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be three points such that $B$ is the midpoint of segment $AC$ and let $P$ be a point such that $<PBC=60$. Equilateral triangle $PCQ$ is constructed such that $B$ and $Q$ are on different half=planes with respect to $PC$, and the equilateral triangle $APR$ is constructed in such a way that $B$ and $R$ are in the same half-plane with respect to $AP$. Let $X$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BQ$ and $PC$, and let $Y$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BR$ and $AP$. Prove that $XY$ and $AC$ are parallel.

Cono Sur 2009 P6

Sebastian has a certain number of rectangles with areas that sum up to 3 and with side lengths all less than or equal to $1$. Demonstrate that with each of these rectangles it is possible to cover a square with side $1$ in such a way that the sides of the rectangles are parallel to the sides of the square.

Note: The rectangles can overlap and they can protrude over the sides of the square.

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be three points such that $B$ is the midpoint of segment $AC$ and let $P$ be a point such that $<PBC=60$. Equilateral triangle $PCQ$ is constructed such that $B$ and $Q$ are on different half=planes with respect to $PC$, and the equilateral triangle $APR$ is constructed in such a way that $B$ and $R$ are in the same half-plane with respect to $AP$. Let $X$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BQ$ and $PC$, and let $Y$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BR$ and $AP$. Prove that $XY$ and $AC$ are parallel.

Cono Sur 2009 P6

Sebastian has a certain number of rectangles with areas that sum up to 3 and with side lengths all less than or equal to $1$. Demonstrate that with each of these rectangles it is possible to cover a square with side $1$ in such a way that the sides of the rectangles are parallel to the sides of the square.

Note: The rectangles can overlap and they can protrude over the sides of the square.

Let us define

Let $P_6$ be a regular hexagon with area $1$. $P_6$ is

*cutting*a convex polygon with $n$ sides by choosing a pair of consecutive sides $AB$ and $BC$ and substituting them by three segments $AM, MN$, and $NC$, where $M$ is the midpoint of $AB$ and $N$ is the midpoint of $BC$. In other words, the triangle $MBN$ is removed and a convex polygon with $n+1$ sides is obtained.Let $P_6$ be a regular hexagon with area $1$. $P_6$ is

*cut*and the polygon $P_7$ is obtained. Then $P_7$ is cut in one of seven ways and polygon $P_8$ is obtained, and so on. Prove that, regardless of how the cuts are made, the area of $P_n$ is always greater than $2/3$
The incircle of triangle $ABC$ touches sides $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$ at $D, E$, and $F$ respectively. Let $\omega_a, \omega_b$ and $\omega_c$ be the circumcircles of triangles $EAF, DBF$, and $DCE$, respectively. The lines $DE$ and $DF$ cut $\omega_a$ at $E_a\neq{E}$ and $F_a\neq{F}$, respectively. Let $r_A$ be the line $E_{a}F_a$. Let $r_B$ and $r_C$ be defined analogously. Show that the lines $r_A$, $r_B$, and $r_C$ determine a triangle with its vertices on the sides of triangle $ABC$.

Let $ABC$ be an equilateral triangle. Let $P$ be a point inside of it such that the square root of the distance of $P$ to one of the sides is equal to the sum of the square roots of the distances of $P$ to the other two sides. Find the geometric place of $P$.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle and $D$ a point in $AC$. If $\angle{CBD} - \angle{ABD} = 60^{\circ}, \hat{BDC} = 30^{\circ}$ and also $AB \cdot BC = BD^{2}$, determine the measure of all the angles of triangle $ABC$.

Cono Sur 2012 P2

In a square $ABCD$, let $P$ be a point in the side $CD$, different from $C$ and $D$. In the triangle $ABP$, the altitudes $AQ$ and $BR$ are drawn, and let $S$ be the intersection point of lines $CQ$ and $DR$. Show that $\angle ASB=90$.

In a square $ABCD$, let $P$ be a point in the side $CD$, different from $C$ and $D$. In the triangle $ABP$, the altitudes $AQ$ and $BR$ are drawn, and let $S$ be the intersection point of lines $CQ$ and $DR$. Show that $\angle ASB=90$.

Cono Sur 2012 P6

Consider a triangle $ABC$ with $1 < \frac{AB}{AC} < \frac{3}{2}$. Let $M$ and $N$, respectively, be variable points of the sides $AB$ and $AC$, different from $A$, such that $\frac{MB}{AC} - \frac{NC}{AB} = 1$. Show that circumcircle of triangle $AMN$ pass through a fixed point different from $A$.

Consider a triangle $ABC$ with $1 < \frac{AB}{AC} < \frac{3}{2}$. Let $M$ and $N$, respectively, be variable points of the sides $AB$ and $AC$, different from $A$, such that $\frac{MB}{AC} - \frac{NC}{AB} = 1$. Show that circumcircle of triangle $AMN$ pass through a fixed point different from $A$.

Cono Sur 2013 P2

In a triangle $ABC$, let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$ and $I$ the incenter of $ABC$. If $IM$ = $IA$, find the least possible measure of $\angle{AIM}$.

In a triangle $ABC$, let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$ and $I$ the incenter of $ABC$. If $IM$ = $IA$, find the least possible measure of $\angle{AIM}$.

Cono Sur 2013 P6

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Let $n \geq 2$ be a whole number. Prove that there are $n$ triangles with the same area that satisfy all of the following properties:

a) Their interiors are disjoint, that is, the triangles do not overlap.

b) Each triangle lies either in $ABCD$ or inside of it.

c) The sum of the areas of all of these triangles is at least $\frac{4n}{4n+1}$ the area of $ABCD$.

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Let $n \geq 2$ be a whole number. Prove that there are $n$ triangles with the same area that satisfy all of the following properties:

a) Their interiors are disjoint, that is, the triangles do not overlap.

b) Each triangle lies either in $ABCD$ or inside of it.

c) The sum of the areas of all of these triangles is at least $\frac{4n}{4n+1}$ the area of $ABCD$.

Let $ABCD$ be a rectangle and $P$ a point outside of it such that $\angle{BPC} = 90^{\circ}$ and the area of the pentagon $ABPCD$ is equal to $AB^{2}$.

Show that $ABPCD$ can be divided in 3 pieces with straight cuts in such a way that a square can be built using those 3 pieces, without leaving any holes or placing pieces on top of each other.

Note: the pieces can be rotated and flipped over.

Let $ABCD$ be an inscribed quadrilateral in a circumference with center $O$ such that it lies inside $ABCD$ and $\angle{BAC} = \angle{ODA}$. Let $E$ be the intersection of $AC$ with $BD$. Lines $r$ and $s$ are drawn through $E$ such that $r$ is perpendicular to $BC$, and $s$ is perpendicular to $AD$. Let $P$ be the intersection of $r$ with $AD$, and $M$ the intersection of $s$ with $BC$. Let $N$ be the midpoint of $EO$.

Prove that $M$, $N$, and $P$ lie on a line.

Cono Sur 2015 P3

Given a acute triangle $PA_1B_1$ is inscribed in the circle $\Gamma$ with radius $1$. for all integers $n \ge 1$ are defined:

Given a acute triangle $PA_1B_1$ is inscribed in the circle $\Gamma$ with radius $1$. for all integers $n \ge 1$ are defined:

- $C_n$ the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to $A_nB_n$
- $O_n$ is the center of $\odot (PA_nB_n)$
- $A_{n+1}$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $C_n$ to $PA_n$
- $B_{n+1} \equiv PB_n \cap O_nA_{n+1}$

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral such that $\angle{BAD} = 90^{\circ}$ and its diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular. Let $M$ be the midpoint of side $CD$, and $E$ be the intersection of $BM$ and $AC$. Let $F$ be a point on side $AD$ such that $BM$ and $EF$ are perpendicular. If $CE = AF\sqrt{2}$ and $FD = CE\sqrt{2}$, show that $ABCD$ is a square.

Cono Sur 2016 P5

Let $ABC$ be a triangle inscribed on a circle with center $O$. Let $D$ and $E$ be points on the sides $AB$ and $BC$,respectively, such that $AD = DE = EC$. Let $X$ be the intersection of the angle bisectors of $\angle ADE$ and $\angle DEC$. If $X \neq O$, show that, the lines $OX$ and $DE$ are perpendicular.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle inscribed on a circle with center $O$. Let $D$ and $E$ be points on the sides $AB$ and $BC$,respectively, such that $AD = DE = EC$. Let $X$ be the intersection of the angle bisectors of $\angle ADE$ and $\angle DEC$. If $X \neq O$, show that, the lines $OX$ and $DE$ are perpendicular.

Let $A(XYZ)$ be the area of the triangle $XYZ$. A non-regular convex polygon $P_1 P_2 \ldots P_n$ is called

*guayaco*if exists a point $O$ in its interior such that $A(P_1OP_2) = A(P_2OP_3) = \cdots = A(P_nOP_1).$ Show that, for every integer $n \ge 3$, a*guayaco*polygon of $n$ sides exists.
Cono Sur 2017 P4

Let $ABC$ an acute triangle with circumcenter $O$. Points $X$ and $Y$ are chosen such that:

Cono Sur 2018 P1

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G1

Let $O$ be the circumcenter of the isosceles triangle $ABC$ ($AB = AC$). Let $P$ be a point of the segment $AO$ and $Q$ the symmetric of $P$ with respect to the midpoint of $AB$. If $OQ$ cuts $AB$ at $K$ and the circle that passes through $A, K$ and $O$ cuts $AC$ in $L$, show that $\angle ALP = \angle CLO$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

The circles $C_1, C_2$ and $C_3$ are externally tangent in pairs (each tangent to other two externally). Let $M$ the common point of $C_1$ and $C_2, N$ the common point of $C_2$ and $C_3$ and $P$ the common point of $C_3$ and $C_1$. Let $A$ be an arbitrary point of $C_1$. Line $AM$ cuts $C_2$ in $B$, line $BN$ cuts $C_3$ in $C$ and line $CP$ cuts $C_1$ in $D$. Prove that $AD$ is diameter of $C_1$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G3

An interior $P$ point to a square $ABCD$ is such that $PA = a, PB = b$ and $PC = b + c$, where the numbers $a, b$ and $c$ satisfy the relationship $a^2 = b^2 + c^2$. Prove that the angle $BPC$ is right.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G4

In a triangle $ABC$ , let $P$ be a point on its circumscribed circle (on the arc $AC$ that does not contain $B$). Let $H,H_1,H_2$ and $H_3$ be the orthocenters of triangles $ABC, BCP, ACP$ and $ABP$, respectively. Let $L = PB \cap AC$ and $J = HH_2 \cap H_1H_3$. If $M$ and $N$ are the midpoints of $JH$ and $LP$, respectively, prove that $MN$ and $JL$ intersect at their midpoint.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G5 problem 4

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle such that $\angle{B}=60$. The circle with diameter $AC$ intersects the internal angle bisectors of $A$ and $C$ at the points $M$ and $N$, respectively $(M\neq{A},$ $N\neq{C})$. The internal bisector of $\angle{B}$ intersects $MN$ and $AC$ at the points $R$ and $S$, respectively. Prove that $BR\leq{RS}$.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G1

Given the heights $h_a, h_b$ and $h_c$ of a triangle, construct (explain how) the triangle ABC.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

Find the ratio between the sum of the areas of the circles and the area of the fourth circle that are shown in the figure. Each circle passes through the center of the previous one and they are internally tangent.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G3 problem 4

Let $ABC$ be a isosceles triangle, with $AB=AC$. A line $r$ that pass through the incenter $I$ of $ABC$ touches the sides $AB$ and $AC$ at the points $D$ and $E$, respectively. Let $F$ and $G$ be points on $BC$ such that $BF=CE$ and $CG=BD$. Show that the angle $\angle FIG$ is constant when we vary the line $r$

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G4 problem 2

Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle and let $AN$, $BM$ and $CP$ the altitudes with respect to the sides $BC$, $CA$ and $AB$, respectively. Let $R$, $S$ be the pojections of $N$ on the sides $AB$, $CA$, respectively, and let $Q$, $W$ be the projections of $N$ on the altitudes $BM$ and $CP$, respectively.

(a) Show that $R$, $Q$, $W$, $S$ are collinear.

(b) Show that $MP=RS-QW$.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G5

Let $O$ be the circumcenter of an acute triangle $ABC$ and $A_1$ a point of the minor arc $BC$ of the circle $ABC$ . Let A_2 and $A_3$ be points on sides $AB$ and $AC$ respectively such that $\angle BA_1A_2=\angle OAC$ and $\angle CA_1A_3=\angle OAB$ . Points $B_2, B_3, C_2$ and $C_3$ are similarly constructed, with $B_2$ in $BC, B_3$ in $AB, C_2$ in $AC$ and $C_3$ in $BC$. Prove that lines $A_2A_3, B_2B_3$ and $C_2C_3$ are concurrent.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G6

Let $AM$ and $AN$ be the tangents to a circle $\Gamma$ drawn from a point $A$ ($M$ and $N$ lie on the circle). A line passing through $A$ cuts $\Gamma$ at $B$ and $C$, with B between $A$ and $C$ such that $AB: BC = 2: 3$. If $P$ is the intersection point of $AB$ and $MN$, calculate the ratio $AP: CP$ .

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G1 problem 6

Sebastian has a certain number of rectangles with areas that sum up to 3 and with side lengths all less than or equal to $1$. Demonstrate that with each of these rectangles it is possible to cover a square with side $1$ in such a way that the sides of the rectangles are parallel to the sides of the square.

Note: The rectangles can overlap and they can protrude over the sides of the square

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

The trapezoid $ABCD$, of bases $AB$ and $CD$, is inscribed in a circumference $\Gamma$. Let $X$ a variable point of the arc $AB$ of $\Gamma$ that does not contain $C$ or $D$. We denote $Y$ to the point of intersection of $AB$ and $DX$, and let Z be the point of the segment $CX$ such that $\frac{XZ}{XC}=\frac{AY}{AB}$ . Prove that the measure of $\angle AZX$ does not depend on the choice of $X.$

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G3

We have a convex polygon $P$ in the plane and two points $S,T$ in the boundary of $P$, dividing the perimeter in a proportion $1:2$. Three distinct points in the boundary, denoted by $A,B,C$ start to move simultaneously along the boundary, in the same direction and with the same speed. Prove that there will be a moment in which one of the segments $AB, BC, CA$ will have a length smaller or equal than $ST$.

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G4

Let $AA _1$ and $CC_1$ be altitudes of an acute triangle $ABC$. Let $I$ and $J$ be the incenters of the triangles $AA_1C$ and $AC_1C$ respectively. The $C_1J$ and $A_1 I$ lines are cut into $T$. Prove that lines $AT$ and $TC$ are perpendicular.

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G5 problem 3

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be three points such that $B$ is the midpoint of segment $AC$ and let $P$ be a point such that $<PBC=60$. Equilateral triangle $PCQ$ is constructed such that $B$ and $Q$ are on different half=planes with respect to $PC$, and the equilateral triangle $APR$ is constructed in such a way that $B$ and $R$ are in the same half-plane with respect to $AP$. Let $X$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BQ$ and $PC$, and let $Y$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BR$ and $AP$. Prove that $XY$ and $AC$ are parallel.

Let $ABC$ an acute triangle with circumcenter $O$. Points $X$ and $Y$ are chosen such that:

- $\angle XAB = \angle YCB = 90^\circ$
- $\angle ABC = \angle BXA = \angle BYC$
- $X$ and $C$ are in different half-planes with respect to $AB$
- $Y$ and $A$ are in different half-planes with respect to $BC$.

Cono Sur 2018 P1

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral, where $R$ and $S$ are points in $DC$ and $AB$, respectively, such that $AD=RC$ and $BC=SA$. Let $P$, $Q$ and $M$ be the midpoints of $RD$, $BS$ and $CA$, respectively. If $\angle MPC + \angle MQA = 90$, prove that $ABCD$ is cyclic.

Cono Sur 2018 P5

Let $ABC$ be a acute-angled triangle with $\angle BAC = 60$ and with incenter $I$ and circumcenter $O$. Let $H$ be the diametrically opposite(antipode) to $O$ in the circumcircle of $BOC$. Prove that $IH = BI + IC$

Let $ABC$ be a acute-angled triangle with $\angle BAC = 60$ and with incenter $I$ and circumcenter $O$. Let $H$ be the diametrically opposite(antipode) to $O$ in the circumcircle of $BOC$. Prove that $IH = BI + IC$

Cono Sur 2019 P6

Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle with $AB< AC$, and let $H$ be its orthocenter. The circumference with diameter $AH$ meets the circumscribed circumference of $ABC$ at $P\neq A$. The tangent to the circumscribed circumference of $ABC$ through $P$ intersects line $BC$ at $Q$. Show that $QP=QH$.

Cono Sur Shortlists

2003, 2005, 2009, 2012

2003, 2005, 2009, 2012

2003 Shortlist

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G1

Let $O$ be the circumcenter of the isosceles triangle $ABC$ ($AB = AC$). Let $P$ be a point of the segment $AO$ and $Q$ the symmetric of $P$ with respect to the midpoint of $AB$. If $OQ$ cuts $AB$ at $K$ and the circle that passes through $A, K$ and $O$ cuts $AC$ in $L$, show that $\angle ALP = \angle CLO$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

The circles $C_1, C_2$ and $C_3$ are externally tangent in pairs (each tangent to other two externally). Let $M$ the common point of $C_1$ and $C_2, N$ the common point of $C_2$ and $C_3$ and $P$ the common point of $C_3$ and $C_1$. Let $A$ be an arbitrary point of $C_1$. Line $AM$ cuts $C_2$ in $B$, line $BN$ cuts $C_3$ in $C$ and line $CP$ cuts $C_1$ in $D$. Prove that $AD$ is diameter of $C_1$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G3

An interior $P$ point to a square $ABCD$ is such that $PA = a, PB = b$ and $PC = b + c$, where the numbers $a, b$ and $c$ satisfy the relationship $a^2 = b^2 + c^2$. Prove that the angle $BPC$ is right.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G4

In a triangle $ABC$ , let $P$ be a point on its circumscribed circle (on the arc $AC$ that does not contain $B$). Let $H,H_1,H_2$ and $H_3$ be the orthocenters of triangles $ABC, BCP, ACP$ and $ABP$, respectively. Let $L = PB \cap AC$ and $J = HH_2 \cap H_1H_3$. If $M$ and $N$ are the midpoints of $JH$ and $LP$, respectively, prove that $MN$ and $JL$ intersect at their midpoint.

In an acute triangle $ABC$, the points $H$, $G$, and $M$ are located on $BC$ in such a way that $AH$, $AG$, and $AM$ are the height, angle bisector, and median of the triangle, respectively. It is known that $HG=GM$, $AB=10$, and $AC=14$. Find the area of triangle $ABC$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G6

Let $L_1$ and $L_2$ be two parallel lines and $L_3$ a line perpendicular to $L_1$ and $L_2$ at $H$ and $P$, respectively. Points $Q$ and $R$ lie on $L_1$ such that $QR = PR$ ($Q \ne H$). Let $d$ be the diameter of the circle inscribed in the triangle $PQR$. Point $T$ lies $L_2$ in the same semiplane as $Q$ with respect to line $L_3$ such that $\frac{1}{TH}= \frac{1}{d}- \frac{1}{PH}$ . Let $X$ be the intersection point of $PQ$ and $TH$. Find the locus of the points $X$ as $Q$ varies on $L_1$.

2003 Cono Sur Shortlist G7 problem 3Let $L_1$ and $L_2$ be two parallel lines and $L_3$ a line perpendicular to $L_1$ and $L_2$ at $H$ and $P$, respectively. Points $Q$ and $R$ lie on $L_1$ such that $QR = PR$ ($Q \ne H$). Let $d$ be the diameter of the circle inscribed in the triangle $PQR$. Point $T$ lies $L_2$ in the same semiplane as $Q$ with respect to line $L_3$ such that $\frac{1}{TH}= \frac{1}{d}- \frac{1}{PH}$ . Let $X$ be the intersection point of $PQ$ and $TH$. Find the locus of the points $X$ as $Q$ varies on $L_1$.

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle such that $\angle{B}=60$. The circle with diameter $AC$ intersects the internal angle bisectors of $A$ and $C$ at the points $M$ and $N$, respectively $(M\neq{A},$ $N\neq{C})$. The internal bisector of $\angle{B}$ intersects $MN$ and $AC$ at the points $R$ and $S$, respectively. Prove that $BR\leq{RS}$.

2005 Shortlist

Given the heights $h_a, h_b$ and $h_c$ of a triangle, construct (explain how) the triangle ABC.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

Find the ratio between the sum of the areas of the circles and the area of the fourth circle that are shown in the figure. Each circle passes through the center of the previous one and they are internally tangent.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G3 problem 4

Let $ABC$ be a isosceles triangle, with $AB=AC$. A line $r$ that pass through the incenter $I$ of $ABC$ touches the sides $AB$ and $AC$ at the points $D$ and $E$, respectively. Let $F$ and $G$ be points on $BC$ such that $BF=CE$ and $CG=BD$. Show that the angle $\angle FIG$ is constant when we vary the line $r$

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G4 problem 2

Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle and let $AN$, $BM$ and $CP$ the altitudes with respect to the sides $BC$, $CA$ and $AB$, respectively. Let $R$, $S$ be the pojections of $N$ on the sides $AB$, $CA$, respectively, and let $Q$, $W$ be the projections of $N$ on the altitudes $BM$ and $CP$, respectively.

(a) Show that $R$, $Q$, $W$, $S$ are collinear.

(b) Show that $MP=RS-QW$.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G5

Let $O$ be the circumcenter of an acute triangle $ABC$ and $A_1$ a point of the minor arc $BC$ of the circle $ABC$ . Let A_2 and $A_3$ be points on sides $AB$ and $AC$ respectively such that $\angle BA_1A_2=\angle OAC$ and $\angle CA_1A_3=\angle OAB$ . Points $B_2, B_3, C_2$ and $C_3$ are similarly constructed, with $B_2$ in $BC, B_3$ in $AB, C_2$ in $AC$ and $C_3$ in $BC$. Prove that lines $A_2A_3, B_2B_3$ and $C_2C_3$ are concurrent.

2005 Cono Sur Shortlist G6

Let $AM$ and $AN$ be the tangents to a circle $\Gamma$ drawn from a point $A$ ($M$ and $N$ lie on the circle). A line passing through $A$ cuts $\Gamma$ at $B$ and $C$, with B between $A$ and $C$ such that $AB: BC = 2: 3$. If $P$ is the intersection point of $AB$ and $MN$, calculate the ratio $AP: CP$ .

2009 Shortlist

Sebastian has a certain number of rectangles with areas that sum up to 3 and with side lengths all less than or equal to $1$. Demonstrate that with each of these rectangles it is possible to cover a square with side $1$ in such a way that the sides of the rectangles are parallel to the sides of the square.

Note: The rectangles can overlap and they can protrude over the sides of the square

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G2

The trapezoid $ABCD$, of bases $AB$ and $CD$, is inscribed in a circumference $\Gamma$. Let $X$ a variable point of the arc $AB$ of $\Gamma$ that does not contain $C$ or $D$. We denote $Y$ to the point of intersection of $AB$ and $DX$, and let Z be the point of the segment $CX$ such that $\frac{XZ}{XC}=\frac{AY}{AB}$ . Prove that the measure of $\angle AZX$ does not depend on the choice of $X.$

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G3

We have a convex polygon $P$ in the plane and two points $S,T$ in the boundary of $P$, dividing the perimeter in a proportion $1:2$. Three distinct points in the boundary, denoted by $A,B,C$ start to move simultaneously along the boundary, in the same direction and with the same speed. Prove that there will be a moment in which one of the segments $AB, BC, CA$ will have a length smaller or equal than $ST$.

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G4

Let $AA _1$ and $CC_1$ be altitudes of an acute triangle $ABC$. Let $I$ and $J$ be the incenters of the triangles $AA_1C$ and $AC_1C$ respectively. The $C_1J$ and $A_1 I$ lines are cut into $T$. Prove that lines $AT$ and $TC$ are perpendicular.

2009 Cono Sur Shortlist G5 problem 3

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be three points such that $B$ is the midpoint of segment $AC$ and let $P$ be a point such that $<PBC=60$. Equilateral triangle $PCQ$ is constructed such that $B$ and $Q$ are on different half=planes with respect to $PC$, and the equilateral triangle $APR$ is constructed in such a way that $B$ and $R$ are in the same half-plane with respect to $AP$. Let $X$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BQ$ and $PC$, and let $Y$ be the point of intersection of the lines $BR$ and $AP$. Prove that $XY$ and $AC$ are parallel.

2012 Shortlist

Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral. Let $P$ be the intersection of $BC$ and $AD$. Line $AC$ intersects the circumcircle of triangle $BDP$ in points $S$ and $T$, with $S$ between $A$ and $C$. Line $BD$ intersects the circumcircle of triangle $ACP$ in points $U$ and $V$, with $U$ between $B$ and $D$. Prove that $PS$ = $PT$ = $PU$ = $PV$.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle, and $M$ and $N$ variable points on $AB$ and $AC$ respectively, such that both $M$ and $N$ do not lie on the vertices, and also, $AM \times MB = AN \times NC$. Prove that the perpendicular bisector of $MN$ passes through a fixed point.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle, and $M$, $N$, and $P$ be the midpoints of $AB$, $BC$, and $CA$ respectively, such that $MBNP$ is a parallelogram. Let $R$ and $S$ be the points in which the line $MN$ intersects the circumcircle of $ABC$. Prove that $AC$ is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle $RPS$.

In a square $ABCD$, let $P$ be a point in the side $CD$, different from $C$ and $D$. In the triangle $ABP$, the altitudes $AQ$ and $BR$ are drawn, and let $S$ be the intersection point of lines $CQ$ and $DR$. Show that $\angle ASB=90$.

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle, and let $H_A$, $H_B$, and $H_C$ be the feet of the altitudes relative to vertices $A$, $B$, and $C$, respectively. Define $I_A$, $I_B$, and $I_C$ as the incenters of triangles $AH_B H_C$, $BH_C H_A$, and $CH_A H_B$, respectively. Let $T_A$, $T_B$, and $T_C$ be the intersection of the incircle of triangle $ABC$ with $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$, respectively. Prove that the triangles $I_A I_B I_C$ and $T_A T_B T_C$ are congruent.

Consider a triangle $ABC$ with $1 < \frac{AB}{AC} < \frac{3}{2}$. Let $M$ and $N$, respectively, be variable points of the sides $AB$ and $AC$, different from $A$, such that $\frac{MB}{AC} - \frac{NC}{AB} = 1$. Show that circumcircle of triangle $AMN$ pass through a fixed point different from $A$.

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