IMO Longlist

See the available shortlist files

IMO Shortlist problems 2017 EN in pdf with solutions

IMO Shortlist problems 2001 - 2017 EN in pdf with solutions

IMO Shortlist problems 1992 - 2000 EN in pdf with solutions, scanned

years 1966 - 72 complete

1973-91 under construction

as soon as all the problems are posted, there shall be added notes concerning official problems, shortlist position and authors

1973-91 under construction

as soon as all the problems are posted, there shall be added notes concerning official problems, shortlist position and authors

IMO longlist 1966

IMO ILL 1966 p1

Given $n>3$ points in the plane such that no three of the points are collinear. Does there exist a circle passing through (at least) $3$ of the given points and not containing any other of the $n$ points in its interior ?

Given $n>3$ points in the plane such that no three of the points are collinear. Does there exist a circle passing through (at least) $3$ of the given points and not containing any other of the $n$ points in its interior ?

IMO ILL 1966 p3

A regular triangular prism has the altitude $h,$ and the two bases of the prism are equilateral triangles with side length $a.$ Dream-holes are made in the centers of both bases, and the three lateral faces are mirrors. Assume that a ray of light, entering the prism through the dream-hole in the upper base, then being reflected once by any of the three mirrors, quits the prism through the dream-hole in the lower base. Find the angle between the upper base and the light ray at the moment when the light ray entered the prism, and the length of the way of the light ray in the interior of the prism.

A regular triangular prism has the altitude $h,$ and the two bases of the prism are equilateral triangles with side length $a.$ Dream-holes are made in the centers of both bases, and the three lateral faces are mirrors. Assume that a ray of light, entering the prism through the dream-hole in the upper base, then being reflected once by any of the three mirrors, quits the prism through the dream-hole in the lower base. Find the angle between the upper base and the light ray at the moment when the light ray entered the prism, and the length of the way of the light ray in the interior of the prism.

IMO ILL 1966 p4

Given $5$ points in the plane, no three of them being collinear. Show that among these $5$ points, we can always find $4$ points forming a convex quadrilateral.

Given $5$ points in the plane, no three of them being collinear. Show that among these $5$ points, we can always find $4$ points forming a convex quadrilateral.

IMO ILL 1966 p6

Let $m$ be a convex polygon in a plane, $l$ its perimeter and $S$ its area. Let $M\left( R\right) $ be the locus of all points in the space whose distance to $m$ is $\leq R,$ and $V\left(R\right) $ is the volume of the solid $M\left( R\right) .$

Let $m$ be a convex polygon in a plane, $l$ its perimeter and $S$ its area. Let $M\left( R\right) $ be the locus of all points in the space whose distance to $m$ is $\leq R,$ and $V\left(R\right) $ is the volume of the solid $M\left( R\right) .$

a) Prove that $ V (R) = \frac 43 \pi R^3 +\frac{\pi}{2} lR^2 +2SR.$

Hereby, we say that the distance of a point $C$ to a figure $m$ is $\leq R$ if there exists a point $D$ of the figure $m$ such that the distance $CD$ is $\leq R.$ (This point $D$ may lie on the boundary of the figure $m$ and inside the figure.)

additional questions:

b) Find the area of the planar $R$-neighborhood of a convex or non-convex polygon $m.$

c) Find the volume of the $R$-neighborhood of a convex polyhedron, e. g. of a cube or of a tetrahedron.

Note by Darij: I guess that the ''$R$-neighborhood'' of a figure is defined as the locus of all points whose distance to the figure is $\leq R.$

IMO ILL 1966 p7

For which arrangements of two infinite circular cylinders does their intersection lie in a plane?

For which arrangements of two infinite circular cylinders does their intersection lie in a plane?

IMO ILL 1966 p14

What is the maximal number of regions a circle can be divided in by segments joining $n$ points on the boundary of the circle ?

What is the maximal number of regions a circle can be divided in by segments joining $n$ points on the boundary of the circle ?

IMO ILL 1966 p15

Given four points $A,$ $B,$ $C,$ $D$ on a circle such that $AB$ is a diameter and $CD$ is not a diameter. Show that the line joining the point of intersection of the tangents to the circle at the points $C$ and $D$ with the point of intersection of the lines $AC$ and $BD$ is perpendicular to the line $AB.$

Given four points $A,$ $B,$ $C,$ $D$ on a circle such that $AB$ is a diameter and $CD$ is not a diameter. Show that the line joining the point of intersection of the tangents to the circle at the points $C$ and $D$ with the point of intersection of the lines $AC$ and $BD$ is perpendicular to the line $AB.$

IMO ILL 1966 p16

We are given a circle $K$ with center $S$ and radius $1$ and a square $Q$ with center $M$ and side $2$. Let $XY$ be the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle $XY Z$. Describe the locus of points $Z$ as $X$ varies along $K$ and $Y$ varies along the boundary of $Q.$

We are given a circle $K$ with center $S$ and radius $1$ and a square $Q$ with center $M$ and side $2$. Let $XY$ be the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle $XY Z$. Describe the locus of points $Z$ as $X$ varies along $K$ and $Y$ varies along the boundary of $Q.$

IMO ILL 1966 p17

Let $ABCD$ and $A^{\prime }B^{\prime}C^{\prime }D^{\prime }$ be two arbitrary parallelograms in the space, and let $M,$ $N,$ $P,$ $Q$ be points dividing the segments $AA^{\prime },$ $BB^{\prime },$ $CC^{\prime },$ $DD^{\prime }$ in equal ratios.

Let $ABCD$ and $A^{\prime }B^{\prime}C^{\prime }D^{\prime }$ be two arbitrary parallelograms in the space, and let $M,$ $N,$ $P,$ $Q$ be points dividing the segments $AA^{\prime },$ $BB^{\prime },$ $CC^{\prime },$ $DD^{\prime }$ in equal ratios.

a) Prove that the quadrilateral $MNPQ$ is a parallelogram.

b) What is the locus of the center of the parallelogram $MNPQ,$ when the point $M$ moves on the segment $AA^{\prime }$ ?

(Consecutive vertices of the parallelograms are labelled in alphabetical order.

IMO ILL 1966 p20

Given three congruent rectangles in the space. Their centers coincide, but the planes they lie in are mutually perpendicular. For any two of the three rectangles, the line of intersection of the planes of these two rectangles contains one midparallel of one rectangle and one midparallel of the other rectangle, and these two midparallels have different lengths. Consider the convex polyhedron whose vertices are the vertices of the rectangles.

Given three congruent rectangles in the space. Their centers coincide, but the planes they lie in are mutually perpendicular. For any two of the three rectangles, the line of intersection of the planes of these two rectangles contains one midparallel of one rectangle and one midparallel of the other rectangle, and these two midparallels have different lengths. Consider the convex polyhedron whose vertices are the vertices of the rectangles.

a) What is the volume of this polyhedron ?

b) Can this polyhedron turn out to be a regular polyhedron ? If yes, what is the condition for this polyhedron to be regular ?

IMO ILL 1966 p21

Prove that the volume $V$ and the lateral area $S$ of a right circular cone satisfy the inequality

Prove that the volume $V$ and the lateral area $S$ of a right circular cone satisfy the inequality

$\left( \frac{6V}{\pi}\right)^2 \leq \left( \frac{2S}{\pi \sqrt 3}\right)^3$

When does equality occur?

IMO ILL 1966 p22

Let $P$ and $P^{\prime }$ be two parallelograms with equal area, and let their sidelengths be $a,$ $b$ and $a^{\prime },$ $b^{\prime }.$ Assume that $a^{\prime }\leq a\leq b\leq b^{\prime },$ and moreover, it is possible to place the segment $b^{\prime }$ such that it completely lies in the interior of the parallelogram $P.$

Let $P$ and $P^{\prime }$ be two parallelograms with equal area, and let their sidelengths be $a,$ $b$ and $a^{\prime },$ $b^{\prime }.$ Assume that $a^{\prime }\leq a\leq b\leq b^{\prime },$ and moreover, it is possible to place the segment $b^{\prime }$ such that it completely lies in the interior of the parallelogram $P.$

Show that the parallelogram $P$ can be partitioned into four polygons such that these four polygons can be composed again to form the parallelogram $%

P^{\prime }.$

IMO ILL 1966 p23

Three faces of a tetrahedron are right triangles, while the fourth is not an obtuse triangle.

Three faces of a tetrahedron are right triangles, while the fourth is not an obtuse triangle.

a) Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the fourth face to be a right triangle is that at some vertex exactly two angles are right.

b) Prove that if all the faces are right triangles, then the volume of the tetrahedron equals one -sixth the product of the three smallest edges not belonging to the same face.

IMO ILL 1966 p27

Given a point $P$ lying on a line $g,$ and given a circle $K.$ Construct a circle passing through the point $P$ and touching the circle $K$ and the line $g.$

Given a point $P$ lying on a line $g,$ and given a circle $K.$ Construct a circle passing through the point $P$ and touching the circle $K$ and the line $g.$

IMO ILL 1966 p28

In the plane, consider a circle with center $S$ and radius $1.$ Let $ABC$ be an arbitrary triangle having this circle as its incircle, and assume that $SA\leq SB\leq SC.$ Find the locus of

In the plane, consider a circle with center $S$ and radius $1.$ Let $ABC$ be an arbitrary triangle having this circle as its incircle, and assume that $SA\leq SB\leq SC.$ Find the locus of

a) all vertices $A$ of such triangles;

b) all vertices $B$ of such triangles;

c) all vertices $C$ of such triangles.

IMO ILL 1966 p32

The side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c$ of a triangle $ABC$ form an arithmetical progression (such that $b-a=c-b$). The side lengths $a_{1},$ $b_{1},$ $c_{1}$ of a triangle $A_{1}B_{1}C_{1}$ also form an arithmetical progression (with $b_{1}-a_{1}=c_{1}-b_{1}$). [Hereby, $a=BC,$ $b=CA,$ $c=AB, $ $a_{1}=B_{1}C_{1},$ $b_{1}=C_{1}A_{1},$ $c_{1}=A_{1}B_{1}.$] Moreover, we know that $\measuredangle CAB=\measuredangle C_{1}A_{1}B_{1}.$

The side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c$ of a triangle $ABC$ form an arithmetical progression (such that $b-a=c-b$). The side lengths $a_{1},$ $b_{1},$ $c_{1}$ of a triangle $A_{1}B_{1}C_{1}$ also form an arithmetical progression (with $b_{1}-a_{1}=c_{1}-b_{1}$). [Hereby, $a=BC,$ $b=CA,$ $c=AB, $ $a_{1}=B_{1}C_{1},$ $b_{1}=C_{1}A_{1},$ $c_{1}=A_{1}B_{1}.$] Moreover, we know that $\measuredangle CAB=\measuredangle C_{1}A_{1}B_{1}.$

Show that triangles $ABC$ and $A_{1}B_{1}C_{1}$ are similar.

IMO ILL 1966 p33

Given two internally tangent circles; in the bigger one we inscribe an equilateral triangle. From each of the vertices of this triangle, we draw a tangent to the smaller circle. Prove that the length of one of these tangents equals the sum of the lengths of the two other tangents.

Given two internally tangent circles; in the bigger one we inscribe an equilateral triangle. From each of the vertices of this triangle, we draw a tangent to the smaller circle. Prove that the length of one of these tangents equals the sum of the lengths of the two other tangents.

IMO ILL 1966 p36

Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Show that the centroids of triangles $ABC,$ $CDA,$ $BCD,$ $DAB$ lie on one circle.

Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Show that the centroids of triangles $ABC,$ $CDA,$ $BCD,$ $DAB$ lie on one circle.

IMO ILL 1966 p37

Show that the four perpendiculars dropped from the midpoints of the sides of a cyclic quadrilateral to the respective opposite sides are concurrent.

Show that the four perpendiculars dropped from the midpoints of the sides of a cyclic quadrilateral to the respective opposite sides are concurrent.

IMO ILL 1966 p38

Two concentric circles have radii $R$ and $r$ respectively. Determine the greatest possible number of circles that are tangent to both these circles and mutually nonintersecting. Prove that this number lies between $\frac 32 \cdot \frac{\sqrt R +\sqrt r }{\sqrt R -\sqrt r } -1$ and $\frac{63}{20} \cdot \frac{R+r}{R-r}.$

Two concentric circles have radii $R$ and $r$ respectively. Determine the greatest possible number of circles that are tangent to both these circles and mutually nonintersecting. Prove that this number lies between $\frac 32 \cdot \frac{\sqrt R +\sqrt r }{\sqrt R -\sqrt r } -1$ and $\frac{63}{20} \cdot \frac{R+r}{R-r}.$

IMO ILL 1966 p39

Consider a circle with center $O$ and radius $R,$ and let $A$ and $B$ be two points in the plane of this circle.

Consider a circle with center $O$ and radius $R,$ and let $A$ and $B$ be two points in the plane of this circle.

a) Draw a chord $CD$ of the circle such that $CD$ is parallel to $AB,$ and the point of the intersection $P$ of the lines $AC$ and $BD$ lies on the circle.

b) Show that generally, one gets two possible points $P$ ($P_{1}$ and $P_{2}$) satisfying the condition of the above problem, and compute the distance between these two points, if the lengths $OA=a,$ $OB=b$ and $AB=d$ are given.

IMO ILL 1966 p41

Given a regular $n$-gon $A_{1}A_{2}...A_{n}$ (with $n\geq 3$) in a plane. How many triangles of the kind $A_{i}A_{j}A_{k}$ are obtuse ?

Given a regular $n$-gon $A_{1}A_{2}...A_{n}$ (with $n\geq 3$) in a plane. How many triangles of the kind $A_{i}A_{j}A_{k}$ are obtuse ?

IMO ILL 1966 p43

Given $5$ points in a plane, no three of them being collinear. Each two of these $5$ points are joined with a segment, and every of these segments is painted either red or blue; assume that there is no triangle whose sides are segments of equal color.

Given $5$ points in a plane, no three of them being collinear. Each two of these $5$ points are joined with a segment, and every of these segments is painted either red or blue; assume that there is no triangle whose sides are segments of equal color.

a) Show that:

(1) Among the four segments originating at any of the $5$ points, two are red and two are blue.

(2) The red segments form a closed way passing through all $5$ given points. (Similarly for the blue segments.)

b) Give a plan how to paint the segments either red or blue in order to have the condition (no triangle with equally colored sides) satisfied.

IMO ILL 1966 p44

What is the greatest number of balls of radius $1/2$ that can be placed within a rectangular box of size $10 \times 10 \times 1 \ ?$

What is the greatest number of balls of radius $1/2$ that can be placed within a rectangular box of size $10 \times 10 \times 1 \ ?$

IMO ILL 1966 p47

Consider all segments dividing the area of a triangle $ABC$ in two equal parts. Find the length of the shortest segment among them, if the side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c$ of triangle $ABC$ are given. How many of these shortest segments exist ?

Consider all segments dividing the area of a triangle $ABC$ in two equal parts. Find the length of the shortest segment among them, if the side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c$ of triangle $ABC$ are given. How many of these shortest segments exist ?

IMO ILL 1966 p49

Two mirror walls are placed to form an angle of measure $\alpha$. There is a candle inside the angle. How many reflections of the candle can an observer see?

Two mirror walls are placed to form an angle of measure $\alpha$. There is a candle inside the angle. How many reflections of the candle can an observer see?

IMO ILL 1966 p50

For any quadrilateral with the side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c,$ $d$ and the area $S,$ prove the inequality$S\leq \frac{a+c}{2}\cdot \frac{b+d}{2}.$

For any quadrilateral with the side lengths $a,$ $b,$ $c,$ $d$ and the area $S,$ prove the inequality$S\leq \frac{a+c}{2}\cdot \frac{b+d}{2}.$

IMO ILL 1966 p52

A figure with area $1$ is cut out of paper. We divide this figure into $10$ parts and color them in $10$ different colors. Now, we turn around the piece of paper, divide the same figure on the other side of the paper in $10$ parts again (in some different way). Show that we can color these new parts in the same $10$ colors again (hereby, different parts should have different colors) such that the sum of the areas of all parts of the figure colored with the same color on both sides is $\geq \frac{1}{10}.$

A figure with area $1$ is cut out of paper. We divide this figure into $10$ parts and color them in $10$ different colors. Now, we turn around the piece of paper, divide the same figure on the other side of the paper in $10$ parts again (in some different way). Show that we can color these new parts in the same $10$ colors again (hereby, different parts should have different colors) such that the sum of the areas of all parts of the figure colored with the same color on both sides is $\geq \frac{1}{10}.$

IMO ILL 1966 p53

Prove that in every convex hexagon of area $S$ one can draw a diagonal that cuts off a triangle of area not exceeding $\frac{1}{6}S.$

Prove that in every convex hexagon of area $S$ one can draw a diagonal that cuts off a triangle of area not exceeding $\frac{1}{6}S.$

IMO ILL 1966 p55

Given the vertex $A$ and the centroid $M$ of a triangle $ABC$, find the locus of vertices $B$ such that all the angles of the triangle lie in the interval $[40^\circ, 70^\circ].$

Given the vertex $A$ and the centroid $M$ of a triangle $ABC$, find the locus of vertices $B$ such that all the angles of the triangle lie in the interval $[40^\circ, 70^\circ].$

IMO ILL 1966 p56

In a tetrahedron, all three pairs of opposite (skew) edges are mutually perpendicular. Prove that the midpoints of the six edges of the tetrahedron lie on one sphere.

In a tetrahedron, all three pairs of opposite (skew) edges are mutually perpendicular. Prove that the midpoints of the six edges of the tetrahedron lie on one sphere.

IMO ILL 1966 p57

Is it possible to choose a set of $100$ (or $200$) points on the boundary of a cube such that this set is fixed under each isometry of the cube into itself? Justify your answer.

Is it possible to choose a set of $100$ (or $200$) points on the boundary of a cube such that this set is fixed under each isometry of the cube into itself? Justify your answer.

Let $a,b,c$ be the lengths of the sides of a triangle, and $\alpha, \beta, \gamma$ respectively, the angles opposite these sides. Prove that if $ a+b=\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}(a\tan{\alpha}+b\tan{\beta}) $ the triangle is isosceles.

IMO ILL 1966 p60

Prove that the sum of the distances of the vertices of a regular tetrahedron from the center of its circumscribed sphere is less than the sum of the distances of these vertices from any other point in space.

Prove that the sum of the distances of the vertices of a regular tetrahedron from the center of its circumscribed sphere is less than the sum of the distances of these vertices from any other point in space.

IMO ILL 1966 p63

Let $ ABC$ be a triangle, and let $ P$, $ Q$, $ R$ be three points in the interiors of the sides $ BC$, $ CA$, $ AB$ of this triangle. Prove that the area of at least one of the three triangles $ AQR$, $ BRP$, $ CPQ$ is less than or equal to one quarter of the area of triangle $ ABC$.

Let $ ABC$ be a triangle, and let $ P$, $ Q$, $ R$ be three points in the interiors of the sides $ BC$, $ CA$, $ AB$ of this triangle. Prove that the area of at least one of the three triangles $ AQR$, $ BRP$, $ CPQ$ is less than or equal to one quarter of the area of triangle $ ABC$.

Alternative formulation: Let $ ABC$ be a triangle, and let $ P$, $ Q$, $ R$ be three points on the segments $ BC$, $ CA$, $ AB$, respectively. Prove that

$ \min\left\{\left|AQR\right|,\left|BRP\right|,\left|CPQ\right|\right\}\leq\frac14\cdot\left|ABC\right|$,

where the abbreviation $ \left|P_1P_2P_3\right|$ denotes the (non-directed) area of an arbitrary triangle $ P_1P_2P_3$.

IMO longlist 1967

Bulgaria

IMO ILL 1967 p4

Suppose, medians $m_a$ and $m_b$ of a triangle are orthogonal. Prove that:

Suppose, medians $m_a$ and $m_b$ of a triangle are orthogonal. Prove that:

a) The medians of the triangle correspond to the sides of a right-angled triangle.

b) If $a,b,c$ are the side-lengths of the triangle, then, the following inequality holds:$5(a^2+b^2-c^2)\geq 8ab$

Czechoslovakia

IMO ILL 1967 p8

The parallelogram $ABCD$ has $AB=a,AD=1,$ $\angle BAD=A$, and the triangle $ABD$ has all angles acute. Prove that circles radius $1$ and center $A,B,C,D$ cover the parallelogram if and only

The parallelogram $ABCD$ has $AB=a,AD=1,$ $\angle BAD=A$, and the triangle $ABD$ has all angles acute. Prove that circles radius $1$ and center $A,B,C,D$ cover the parallelogram if and only

$a\le\cos A+\sqrt3\sin A.$

IMO ILL 1967 p9

Circle $k$ and its diameter $AB$ are given. Find the locus of the centers of circles inscribed in the triangles having one vertex on $AB$ and two other vertices on $k.$

Circle $k$ and its diameter $AB$ are given. Find the locus of the centers of circles inscribed in the triangles having one vertex on $AB$ and two other vertices on $k.$

IMO ILL 1967 p10

The square $ABCD$ has to be decomposed into $n$ triangles (which are not overlapping) and which have all angles acute. Find the smallest integer $n$ for which there exist a solution of that problem and for such $n$ construct at least one decomposition. Answer whether it is possible to ask moreover that (at least) one of these triangles has the perimeter less than an arbitrarily given positive number.

The square $ABCD$ has to be decomposed into $n$ triangles (which are not overlapping) and which have all angles acute. Find the smallest integer $n$ for which there exist a solution of that problem and for such $n$ construct at least one decomposition. Answer whether it is possible to ask moreover that (at least) one of these triangles has the perimeter less than an arbitrarily given positive number.

IMO ILL 1967 p11

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Find the maximal number of non-congruent triangles whose sides lengths are integers $\leq n.$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Find the maximal number of non-congruent triangles whose sides lengths are integers $\leq n.$

IMO ILL 1967 p12

Given a segment $AB$ of the length 1, define the set $M$ of points in the

Given a segment $AB$ of the length 1, define the set $M$ of points in the

following way: it contains two points $A,B,$ and also all points obtained from $A,B$ by iterating the following rule: With every pair of points $X,Y$ the set $M$ contains also the point $Z$ of the segment $XY$ for which $YZ = 3XZ.$

Germany, DR

IMO ILL 1967 p13

Find whether among all quadrilaterals, whose interiors lie inside a semi-circle of radius $r$, there exist one (or more) with maximum area. If so, determine their shape and area.

Find whether among all quadrilaterals, whose interiors lie inside a semi-circle of radius $r$, there exist one (or more) with maximum area. If so, determine their shape and area.

Great Britain

IMO ILL 1967 p19

The $n$ points $P_1,P_2, \ldots, P_n$ are placed inside or on the boundary of a disk of radius 1 in such a way that the minimum distance $D_n$ between any two of these points has its largest possible value $D_n.$ Calculate $D_n$ for $n = 2$ to 7. and justify your answer.

The $n$ points $P_1,P_2, \ldots, P_n$ are placed inside or on the boundary of a disk of radius 1 in such a way that the minimum distance $D_n$ between any two of these points has its largest possible value $D_n.$ Calculate $D_n$ for $n = 2$ to 7. and justify your answer.

Hungary

IMO ILL 1967 p20

In the space $n \geq 3$ points are given. Every pair of points determines some distance. Suppose all distances are different. Connect every point with the nearest point. Prove that it is impossible to obtain (closed) polygonal line in such a way.

In the space $n \geq 3$ points are given. Every pair of points determines some distance. Suppose all distances are different. Connect every point with the nearest point. Prove that it is impossible to obtain (closed) polygonal line in such a way.

IMO ILL 1967 p22

Let $k_1$ and $k_2$ be two circles with centers $O_1$ and $O_2$ and equal radius $r$ such that $O_1O_2 = r$. Let $A$ and $B$ be two points lying on the circle $k_1$ and being symmetric to each other with respect to the line $O_1O_2$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point on $k_2$. Prove that

Let $k_1$ and $k_2$ be two circles with centers $O_1$ and $O_2$ and equal radius $r$ such that $O_1O_2 = r$. Let $A$ and $B$ be two points lying on the circle $k_1$ and being symmetric to each other with respect to the line $O_1O_2$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point on $k_2$. Prove that

$PA^2 + PB^2 \geq 2r^2.$

IMO ILL 1967 p25

Three disks of diameter $d$ are touching a sphere in their centers. Besides, every disk touches the other two disks. How to choose the radius $R$ of the sphere in order that axis of the whole figure has an angle of $60^\circ$ with the line connecting the center of the sphere with the point of the disks which is at the largest distance from the axis ? (The axis of the figure is the line having the property that rotation of the figure of $120^\circ$ around that line brings the figure in the initial position. Disks are all on one side of the plane, passing through the center of the sphere and orthogonal to the axis).

Three disks of diameter $d$ are touching a sphere in their centers. Besides, every disk touches the other two disks. How to choose the radius $R$ of the sphere in order that axis of the whole figure has an angle of $60^\circ$ with the line connecting the center of the sphere with the point of the disks which is at the largest distance from the axis ? (The axis of the figure is the line having the property that rotation of the figure of $120^\circ$ around that line brings the figure in the initial position. Disks are all on one side of the plane, passing through the center of the sphere and orthogonal to the axis).

Italy

IMO ILL 1967 p26

Let $ABCD$ be a regular tetrahedron. To an arbitrary point $M$ on one edge, say $CD$, corresponds the point $P = P(M)$ which is the intersection of two lines $AH$ and $BK$, drawn from $A$ orthogonally to $BM$ and from $B$ orthogonally to $AM$. What is the locus of $P$ when $M$ varies ?

Let $ABCD$ be a regular tetrahedron. To an arbitrary point $M$ on one edge, say $CD$, corresponds the point $P = P(M)$ which is the intersection of two lines $AH$ and $BK$, drawn from $A$ orthogonally to $BM$ and from $B$ orthogonally to $AM$. What is the locus of $P$ when $M$ varies ?

IMO ILL 1967 p29

$A_0B_0C_0$ and $A_1B_1C_1$ are acute-angled triangles. Describe, and prove, how to construct the triangle $ABC$ with the largest possible area which is circumscribed about $A_0B_0C_0$ (so $BC$ contains $B_0, CA$ contains $B_0$, and $AB$ contains $C_0$) and similar to $A_1B_1C_1.$

$A_0B_0C_0$ and $A_1B_1C_1$ are acute-angled triangles. Describe, and prove, how to construct the triangle $ABC$ with the largest possible area which is circumscribed about $A_0B_0C_0$ (so $BC$ contains $B_0, CA$ contains $B_0$, and $AB$ contains $C_0$) and similar to $A_1B_1C_1.$

Mongolia

IMO ILL 1967 p32

Determine the volume of the body obtained by cutting the ball of radius $R$ by the trihedron with vertex in the center of that ball, it its dihedral angles are $\alpha, \beta, \gamma.$

Determine the volume of the body obtained by cutting the ball of radius $R$ by the trihedron with vertex in the center of that ball, it its dihedral angles are $\alpha, \beta, \gamma.$

IMO ILL 1967 p34

Faces of a convex polyhedron are six squares and 8 equilateral triangles and each edge is a common side for one triangle and one square. All dihedral angles obtained from the triangle and square with a common edge, are equal. Prove that it is possible to circumscribe a sphere around the polyhedron, and compute the ratio of the squares of volumes of that polyhedron and of the ball whose boundary is the circumscribed sphere.

Faces of a convex polyhedron are six squares and 8 equilateral triangles and each edge is a common side for one triangle and one square. All dihedral angles obtained from the triangle and square with a common edge, are equal. Prove that it is possible to circumscribe a sphere around the polyhedron, and compute the ratio of the squares of volumes of that polyhedron and of the ball whose boundary is the circumscribed sphere.

Poland

IMO ILL 1967 p36

Prove this proposition: Center the sphere circumscribed around a tetrahedron which coincides with the center of a sphere inscribed in that tetrahedron if and only if the skew edges of the tetrahedron are equal.

Prove this proposition: Center the sphere circumscribed around a tetrahedron which coincides with the center of a sphere inscribed in that tetrahedron if and only if the skew edges of the tetrahedron are equal.

IMO ILL 1967 p39

Show that the triangle whose angles satisfy the equality $ \frac{sin^2(A) + sin^2(B) + sin^2(C)}{cos^2(A) + cos^2(B) + cos^2(C)} = 2 $ is a rectangular triangle.

Show that the triangle whose angles satisfy the equality $ \frac{sin^2(A) + sin^2(B) + sin^2(C)}{cos^2(A) + cos^2(B) + cos^2(C)} = 2 $ is a rectangular triangle.

IMO ILL 1967 p40

Prove that a tetrahedron with just one edge length greater than $1$ has volume at most $ \frac{1}{8}.$

Prove that a tetrahedron with just one edge length greater than $1$ has volume at most $ \frac{1}{8}.$

IMO ILL 1967 p41

A line $l$ is drawn through the intersection point $H$ of altitudes of acute-angle triangles. Prove that symmetric images $l_a, l_b, l_c$ of $l$ with respect to the sides $BC,CA,AB$ have one point in common, which lies on the circumcircle of $ABC.$

A line $l$ is drawn through the intersection point $H$ of altitudes of acute-angle triangles. Prove that symmetric images $l_a, l_b, l_c$ of $l$ with respect to the sides $BC,CA,AB$ have one point in common, which lies on the circumcircle of $ABC.$

Romania

IMO ILL 1967 p45

(i) Solve the equation:

(i) Solve the equation:

$\sin^3(x) + \sin^3\left( \frac{2 \pi}{3} + x\right) + \sin^3\left( \frac{4 \pi}{3} + x\right) + \frac{3}{4} \cos {2x} = 0.$

(ii) Supposing the solutions are in the form of arcs $AB$ with one end at the point $A$, the beginning of the arcs of the trigonometric circle, and $P$ a regular polygon inscribed in the circle with one vertex in $A$, find:

1) The subsets of arcs having the other end in $B$ in one of the vertices of the regular dodecagon.

2) Prove that no solution can have the end $B$ in one of the vertices of polygon $P$ whose number of sides is prime or having factors other than 2 or 3.

Sweden

IMO ILL 1967 p52

In the plane a point $O$ is and a sequence of points $P_1, P_2, P_3, \ldots$ are given. The distances $OP_1, OP_2, OP_3, \ldots$ are $r_1, r_2, r_3, \ldots$ Let $\alpha$ satisfies $0 < \alpha < 1.$ Suppose that for every $n$ the distance from the point $P_n$ to any other point of the sequence is $\geq r^{\alpha}_n.$ Determine the exponent $\beta$, as large as possible such that for some $C$ independent of $n$

In the plane a point $O$ is and a sequence of points $P_1, P_2, P_3, \ldots$ are given. The distances $OP_1, OP_2, OP_3, \ldots$ are $r_1, r_2, r_3, \ldots$ Let $\alpha$ satisfies $0 < \alpha < 1.$ Suppose that for every $n$ the distance from the point $P_n$ to any other point of the sequence is $\geq r^{\alpha}_n.$ Determine the exponent $\beta$, as large as possible such that for some $C$ independent of $n$

$r_n \geq Cn^{\beta}, n = 1,2, \ldots$

IMO ILL 1967 p53

In making Euclidean constructions in geometry it is permitted to use a ruler and a pair of compasses. In the constructions considered in this question no compasses are permitted, but the ruler is assumed to have two parallel edges, which can be used for constructing two parallel lines through two given points whose distance is at least equal to the breadth of the rule. Then the distance between the parallel lines is equal to the breadth of the ruler. Carry through the following constructions with such a ruler. Construct:

In making Euclidean constructions in geometry it is permitted to use a ruler and a pair of compasses. In the constructions considered in this question no compasses are permitted, but the ruler is assumed to have two parallel edges, which can be used for constructing two parallel lines through two given points whose distance is at least equal to the breadth of the rule. Then the distance between the parallel lines is equal to the breadth of the ruler. Carry through the following constructions with such a ruler. Construct:

a) The bisector of a given angle.

b) The midpoint of a given rectilinear line segment.

c) The center of a circle through three given non-collinear points.

d) A line through a given point parallel to a given line.

Soviet Union

IMO ILL 1967 p54

Is it possible to find a set of $100$ (or $200$) points on the boundary of a cube such that this set remains fixed under all rotations which leave the cube fixed ?

Is it possible to find a set of $100$ (or $200$) points on the boundary of a cube such that this set remains fixed under all rotations which leave the cube fixed ?

IMO ILL 1967 p59

On the circle with center 0 and radius 1 the point $A_0$ is fixed and points $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_{999}, A_{1000}$ are distributed in such a way that the angle $\angle A_00A_k = k$ (in radians). Cut the circle at points $A_0, A_1, \ldots, A_{1000}.$ How many arcs with different lengths are obtained. ?

On the circle with center 0 and radius 1 the point $A_0$ is fixed and points $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_{999}, A_{1000}$ are distributed in such a way that the angle $\angle A_00A_k = k$ (in radians). Cut the circle at points $A_0, A_1, \ldots, A_{1000}.$ How many arcs with different lengths are obtained. ?

IMO longlist 1969

IMO ILL 1969 p1 (BEL 1)

A parabola $P_1$ with equation $x^2 - 2py = 0$ and parabola $P_2$ with equation $x^2 + 2py = 0, p > 0$, are given. A line $t$ is tangent to $P_2.$ Find the locus of pole $M$ of the line $t$ with respect to $P_1.$

A parabola $P_1$ with equation $x^2 - 2py = 0$ and parabola $P_2$ with equation $x^2 + 2py = 0, p > 0$, are given. A line $t$ is tangent to $P_2.$ Find the locus of pole $M$ of the line $t$ with respect to $P_1.$

IMO ILL 1969 p2 (BEL 2)

a) Find the equations of regular hyperbolas passing through the points $A(\alpha, 0), B(\beta, 0),$ and $C(0, \gamma).$

a) Find the equations of regular hyperbolas passing through the points $A(\alpha, 0), B(\beta, 0),$ and $C(0, \gamma).$

b) Prove that all such hyperbolas pass through the orthocenter $H$ of the triangle $ABC.$

c) Find the locus of the centers of these hyperbolas.

d) Check whether this locus coincides with the nine-point circle of the triangle $ABC.$

IMO ILL 1969 p4 (BEL 4)

Let $O$ be a point on a nondegenerate conic. A right angle with vertex $O$ intersects the conic at points $A$ and $B$. Prove that the line $AB$ passes through a fixed point located on the normal to the conic through the point $O.$

Let $O$ be a point on a nondegenerate conic. A right angle with vertex $O$ intersects the conic at points $A$ and $B$. Prove that the line $AB$ passes through a fixed point located on the normal to the conic through the point $O.$

a) Prove that all conics passing through the points $O,A,B,G$ are hyperbolas.

b) Find the locus of the centers of these hyperbolas.

IMO ILL 1969 p9 (BUL 3)

One hundred convex polygons are placed on a square with edge of length $38 cm.$ The area of each of the polygons is smaller than $\pi cm^2,$ and the perimeter of each of the polygons is smaller than $2\pi cm.$ Prove that there exists a disk with radius $1$ in the square that does not intersect any of the polygons.

One hundred convex polygons are placed on a square with edge of length $38 cm.$ The area of each of the polygons is smaller than $\pi cm^2,$ and the perimeter of each of the polygons is smaller than $2\pi cm.$ Prove that there exists a disk with radius $1$ in the square that does not intersect any of the polygons.

IMO ILL 1969 p10 (BUL 4)

Let $M$ be the point inside the right-angled triangle $ABC (\angle C = 90^{\circ})$ such that $\angle MAB = \angle MBC = \angle MCA =\phi.$ Let $\Psi$ be the acute angle between the medians of $AC$ and $BC.$ Prove that $\frac{\sin(\phi+\Psi)}{\sin(\phi-\Psi)}= 5.$

Let $M$ be the point inside the right-angled triangle $ABC (\angle C = 90^{\circ})$ such that $\angle MAB = \angle MBC = \angle MCA =\phi.$ Let $\Psi$ be the acute angle between the medians of $AC$ and $BC.$ Prove that $\frac{\sin(\phi+\Psi)}{\sin(\phi-\Psi)}= 5.$

IMO ILL 1969 p11 (BUL 5)

Let $Z$ be a set of points in the plane. Suppose that there exists a pair of points that cannot be joined by a polygonal line not passing through any point of $Z.$ Let us call such a pair of points unjoinable. Prove that for each real $r > 0$ there exists an unjoinable pair of points separated by distance $r.$

Let $Z$ be a set of points in the plane. Suppose that there exists a pair of points that cannot be joined by a polygonal line not passing through any point of $Z.$ Let us call such a pair of points unjoinable. Prove that for each real $r > 0$ there exists an unjoinable pair of points separated by distance $r.$

IMO ILL 1969 p12 (CZS 1)

Given a unit cube, find the locus of the centroids of all tetrahedra whose vertices lie on the sides of the cube.

Given a unit cube, find the locus of the centroids of all tetrahedra whose vertices lie on the sides of the cube.

IMO ILL 1969 p16 (CZS 5)

A convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ with sides $AB = a, BC = b, CD = c, DA = d$ and angles $\alpha = \angle DAB, \beta = \angle ABC, \gamma = \angle BCD,$ and $\delta = \angle CDA$ is given. Let $s = \frac{a + b + c +d}{2}$ and $P$ be the area of the quadrilateral. Prove that $P^2 = (s - a)(s - b)(s - c)(s - d) - abcd \cos^2\frac{\alpha +\gamma}{2}$

A convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ with sides $AB = a, BC = b, CD = c, DA = d$ and angles $\alpha = \angle DAB, \beta = \angle ABC, \gamma = \angle BCD,$ and $\delta = \angle CDA$ is given. Let $s = \frac{a + b + c +d}{2}$ and $P$ be the area of the quadrilateral. Prove that $P^2 = (s - a)(s - b)(s - c)(s - d) - abcd \cos^2\frac{\alpha +\gamma}{2}$

IMO ILL 1969 p20 (FRA 3)

A polygon (not necessarily convex) with vertices in the lattice points of a rectangular grid is given. The area of the polygon is $S.$ If $I$ is the number of lattice points that are strictly in the interior of the polygon and B the number of lattice points on the border of the polygon, find the number $T = 2S- B -2I + 2.$

A polygon (not necessarily convex) with vertices in the lattice points of a rectangular grid is given. The area of the polygon is $S.$ If $I$ is the number of lattice points that are strictly in the interior of the polygon and B the number of lattice points on the border of the polygon, find the number $T = 2S- B -2I + 2.$

IMO ILL 1969 p21 (FRA 4)

A right-angled triangle $OAB$ has its right angle at the point $B.$ An arbitrary circle with center on the line $OB$ is tangent to the line $OA.$ Let $AT$ be the tangent to the circle different from $OA$ ($T$ is the point of tangency). Prove that the median from $B$ of the triangle $OAB$ intersects $AT$ at a point $M$ such that $MB = MT.$

A right-angled triangle $OAB$ has its right angle at the point $B.$ An arbitrary circle with center on the line $OB$ is tangent to the line $OA.$ Let $AT$ be the tangent to the circle different from $OA$ ($T$ is the point of tangency). Prove that the median from $B$ of the triangle $OAB$ intersects $AT$ at a point $M$ such that $MB = MT.$

IMO ILL 1969 p26 (GBR 3)

A smooth solid consists of a right circular cylinder of height $h$ and base-radius $r$, surmounted by a hemisphere of radius $r$ and center $O.$ The solid stands on a horizontal table. One end of a string is attached to a point on the base. The string is stretched (initially being kept in the vertical plane) over the highest point of the solid and held down at the point $P$ on the hemisphere such that $OP$ makes an angle $\alpha$ with the horizontal. Show that if $\alpha$ is small enough, the string will slacken if slightly displaced and no longer remain in a vertical plane. If then pulled tight through $P$, show that it will cross the common circular section of the hemisphere and cylinder at a point $Q$ such that $\angle SOQ = \phi$, $S$ being where it initially crossed this section, and $\sin \phi = \frac{r \tan \alpha}{h}$.

A smooth solid consists of a right circular cylinder of height $h$ and base-radius $r$, surmounted by a hemisphere of radius $r$ and center $O.$ The solid stands on a horizontal table. One end of a string is attached to a point on the base. The string is stretched (initially being kept in the vertical plane) over the highest point of the solid and held down at the point $P$ on the hemisphere such that $OP$ makes an angle $\alpha$ with the horizontal. Show that if $\alpha$ is small enough, the string will slacken if slightly displaced and no longer remain in a vertical plane. If then pulled tight through $P$, show that it will cross the common circular section of the hemisphere and cylinder at a point $Q$ such that $\angle SOQ = \phi$, $S$ being where it initially crossed this section, and $\sin \phi = \frac{r \tan \alpha}{h}$.

IMO ILL 1969 p27 (GBR 4)

The segment $AB$ perpendicularly bisects $CD$ at $X$. Show that, subject to restrictions, there is a right circular cone whose axis passes through $X$ and on whose surface lie the points $A,B,C,D.$ What are the restrictions?

The segment $AB$ perpendicularly bisects $CD$ at $X$. Show that, subject to restrictions, there is a right circular cone whose axis passes through $X$ and on whose surface lie the points $A,B,C,D.$ What are the restrictions?

IMO ILL 1969 p32 (GDR 4)

Find the maximal number of regions into which a sphere can be partitioned by $n$ circles.

Find the maximal number of regions into which a sphere can be partitioned by $n$ circles.

IMO ILL 1969 p33 (GDR 5)

Given a ring $G$ in the plane bounded by two concentric circles with radii $R$ and $\frac{R}{2}$, prove that we can cover this region with $8$ disks of radius $\frac{2R}{5}$. (A region is covered if each of its points is inside or on the border of some disk.)

Given a ring $G$ in the plane bounded by two concentric circles with radii $R$ and $\frac{R}{2}$, prove that we can cover this region with $8$ disks of radius $\frac{2R}{5}$. (A region is covered if each of its points is inside or on the border of some disk.)

IMO ILL 1969 p36 (HUN 3)

In the plane $4000$ points are given such that each line passes through at most $2$ of these points. Prove that there exist $1000$ disjoint quadrilaterals in the plane with vertices at these points.

In the plane $4000$ points are given such that each line passes through at most $2$ of these points. Prove that there exist $1000$ disjoint quadrilaterals in the plane with vertices at these points.

IMO ILL 1969 p39 (HUN 6)

Find the positions of three points $A,B,C$ on the boundary of a unit cube such that $min\{AB,AC,BC\}$ is the greatest possible.

Find the positions of three points $A,B,C$ on the boundary of a unit cube such that $min\{AB,AC,BC\}$ is the greatest possible.

IMO ILL 1969 p44 (MON 5)

Find the radius of the circle circumscribed about the isosceles triangle whose sides are the solutions of the equation $x^2 - ax + b = 0$.

Find the radius of the circle circumscribed about the isosceles triangle whose sides are the solutions of the equation $x^2 - ax + b = 0$.

IMO ILL 1969 p45

Given $n>4$ points in the plane, no three collinear. Prove that there are at least $\frac{(n-3)(n-4)}{2}$ convex quadrilaterals with vertices amongst the $n$ points.

Given $n>4$ points in the plane, no three collinear. Prove that there are at least $\frac{(n-3)(n-4)}{2}$ convex quadrilaterals with vertices amongst the $n$ points.

IMO ILL 1969 p46 (NET 1)

The vertices of an $(n + 1)-$gon are placed on the edges of a regular $n-$gon so that the perimeter of the $n-$gon is divided into equal parts. How does one choose these $n + 1$ points in order to obtain the $(n + 1)-$gon with

The vertices of an $(n + 1)-$gon are placed on the edges of a regular $n-$gon so that the perimeter of the $n-$gon is divided into equal parts. How does one choose these $n + 1$ points in order to obtain the $(n + 1)-$gon with

a) maximal area;

b) minimal area?

IMO ILL 1969 p47

$C$ is a point on the semicircle diameter $AB$, between $A$ and $B$. $D$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $C$ to $AB$. The circle $K_1$ is the incircle of $ABC$, the circle $K_2$ touches $CD,DA$ and the semicircle, the circle $K_3$ touches $CD,DB$ and the semicircle. Prove that $K_1,K_2$ and $K_3$ have another common tangent apart from $AB$.

$C$ is a point on the semicircle diameter $AB$, between $A$ and $B$. $D$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $C$ to $AB$. The circle $K_1$ is the incircle of $ABC$, the circle $K_2$ touches $CD,DA$ and the semicircle, the circle $K_3$ touches $CD,DB$ and the semicircle. Prove that $K_1,K_2$ and $K_3$ have another common tangent apart from $AB$.

IMO ILL 1969 p49 (NET 4)

A boy has a set of trains and pieces of railroad track. Each piece is a quarter of circle, and by concatenating these pieces, the boy obtained a closed railway. The railway does not intersect itself. In passing through this railway, the train sometimes goes in the clockwise direction, and sometimes in the opposite direction. Prove that the train passes an even number of times through the pieces in the clockwise direction and an even number of times in the counterclockwise direction. Also, prove that the number of pieces is divisible by $4.$

A boy has a set of trains and pieces of railroad track. Each piece is a quarter of circle, and by concatenating these pieces, the boy obtained a closed railway. The railway does not intersect itself. In passing through this railway, the train sometimes goes in the clockwise direction, and sometimes in the opposite direction. Prove that the train passes an even number of times through the pieces in the clockwise direction and an even number of times in the counterclockwise direction. Also, prove that the number of pieces is divisible by $4.$

IMO ILL 1969 p50 (NET 5)

The bisectors of the exterior angles of a pentagon $B_1B_2B_3B_4B_5$ form another pentagon $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5.$ Construct $B_1B_2B_3B_4B_5$ from the given pentagon $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5.$

The bisectors of the exterior angles of a pentagon $B_1B_2B_3B_4B_5$ form another pentagon $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5.$ Construct $B_1B_2B_3B_4B_5$ from the given pentagon $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5.$

IMO ILL 1969 p51 (NET 6)

A curve determined by $y =\sqrt{x^2 - 10x+ 52}, 0\le x \le 100,$ is constructed in a rectangular grid. Determine the number of squares cut by the curve.

A curve determined by $y =\sqrt{x^2 - 10x+ 52}, 0\le x \le 100,$ is constructed in a rectangular grid. Determine the number of squares cut by the curve.

IMO ILL 1969 p52

Prove that a regular polygon with an odd number of edges cannot be partitioned into four pieces with equal areas by two lines that pass through the center of polygon.

Prove that a regular polygon with an odd number of edges cannot be partitioned into four pieces with equal areas by two lines that pass through the center of polygon.

IMO ILL 1969 p53 (POL 2)

Given two segments $AB$ and $CD$ not in the same plane, find the locus of points $M$ such that $MA^2 +MB^2 = MC^2 +MD^2.$

Given two segments $AB$ and $CD$ not in the same plane, find the locus of points $M$ such that $MA^2 +MB^2 = MC^2 +MD^2.$

IMO ILL 1969 p55

For each of $k=1,2,3,4,5$ find necessary and sufficient conditions on $a>0$ such that there exists a tetrahedron with $k$ edges length $a$ and the remainder length $1$.

For each of $k=1,2,3,4,5$ find necessary and sufficient conditions on $a>0$ such that there exists a tetrahedron with $k$ edges length $a$ and the remainder length $1$.

IMO ILL 1969 p57

Given triangle $ ABC $ with points $ M $ and $ N $ are in the sides $ AB $ and $ AC $ respectively.

Given triangle $ ABC $ with points $ M $ and $ N $ are in the sides $ AB $ and $ AC $ respectively.

If $ \dfrac{BM}{MA} +\dfrac{CN}{NA} = 1 $ , then prove that the centroid of $ ABC $ lies on $ MN $ .

IMO ILL 1969 p58 (SWE 1)

Six points $P_1, . . . , P_6$ are given in $3-$dimensional space such that no four of them lie in the same plane. Each of the line segments $P_jP_k$ is colored black or white. Prove that there exists one triangle $P_jP_kP_l$ whose edges are of the same color.

Six points $P_1, . . . , P_6$ are given in $3-$dimensional space such that no four of them lie in the same plane. Each of the line segments $P_jP_k$ is colored black or white. Prove that there exists one triangle $P_jP_kP_l$ whose edges are of the same color.

(1) Let $S = \{P_1, P_2, \cdots\}$ be an arbitrary finite set of points in the plane, and $r_j$ the distance from $P_j$ to the origin $O.$ We assign to each $P_j$ the closed disk $D_j$ with center $P_j$ and radius $r_j$. Then some $n$ of these disks contain all points of $S.$

(2) $n$ is the smallest integer with the above property.

IMO ILL 1969 p68 (USS 5)

Given $5$ points in the plane, no three of which are collinear, prove that we can choose $4$ points among them that form a convex quadrilateral.

IMO ILL 1969 p70 (YUG 2)

A park has the shape of a convex pentagon of area $50000\sqrt{3} m^2$. A man standing at an interior point $O$ of the park notices that he stands at a distance of at most $200 m$ from each vertex of the pentagon. Prove that he stands at a distance of at least $100 m$ from each side of the pentagon.

A park has the shape of a convex pentagon of area $50000\sqrt{3} m^2$. A man standing at an interior point $O$ of the park notices that he stands at a distance of at most $200 m$ from each vertex of the pentagon. Prove that he stands at a distance of at least $100 m$ from each side of the pentagon.

IMO ILL 1969 p71 (YUG 3)

Let four points $A_i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)$ in the plane determine four triangles. In each of these triangles we choose the smallest angle. The sum of these angles is denoted by $S.$ What is the exact placement of the points $A_i$ if $S = 180^{\circ}$?

Let four points $A_i (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)$ in the plane determine four triangles. In each of these triangles we choose the smallest angle. The sum of these angles is denoted by $S.$ What is the exact placement of the points $A_i$ if $S = 180^{\circ}$?

IMO longlist 1970

IMO ILL 1970 p7

Let $ABCD$ be an arbitrary quadrilateral. Squares with centers $M_1, M_2, M_3, M_4$ are constructed on $AB,BC,CD,DA$ respectively, all outwards or all inwards. Prove that $M_1 M_3=M_2 M_4$ and $M_1 M_3\perp M_2 M_4$.

Let $ABCD$ be an arbitrary quadrilateral. Squares with centers $M_1, M_2, M_3, M_4$ are constructed on $AB,BC,CD,DA$ respectively, all outwards or all inwards. Prove that $M_1 M_3=M_2 M_4$ and $M_1 M_3\perp M_2 M_4$.

IMO ILL 1970 p8

Consider a regular $2n$-gon and the $n$ diagonals of it that pass through its center. Let $P$ be a point of the inscribed circle and let $a_1, a_2, \ldots , a_n$ be the angles in which the diagonals mentioned are visible from the point $P$. Prove that

Consider a regular $2n$-gon and the $n$ diagonals of it that pass through its center. Let $P$ be a point of the inscribed circle and let $a_1, a_2, \ldots , a_n$ be the angles in which the diagonals mentioned are visible from the point $P$. Prove that

$\sum_{i=1}^n \tan^2 a_i = 2n \frac{\cos^2 \frac{\pi}{2n}}{\sin^4 \frac{\pi}{2n}}.$

IMO ILL 1970 p11

Let $ABCD$ and $A'B'C'D'$ be two arbitrary squares in the plane that are oriented in the same direction. Prove that the quadrilateral formed by the midpoints of $AA',BB',CC',DD'$ is a square.

Let $ABCD$ and $A'B'C'D'$ be two arbitrary squares in the plane that are oriented in the same direction. Prove that the quadrilateral formed by the midpoints of $AA',BB',CC',DD'$ is a square.

IMO ILL 1970 p13

Each side of an arbitrary $\triangle ABC$ is divided into equal parts, and lines parallel to $AB,BC,CA$ are drawn through each of these points, thus cutting $\triangle ABC$ into small triangles. Points are assigned a number in the following manner:

Each side of an arbitrary $\triangle ABC$ is divided into equal parts, and lines parallel to $AB,BC,CA$ are drawn through each of these points, thus cutting $\triangle ABC$ into small triangles. Points are assigned a number in the following manner:

(1) $A,B,C$ are assigned $1,2,3$ respectively

(2) Points on $AB$ are assigned $1$ or $2$

(3) Points on $BC$ are assigned $2$ or $3$

(4) Points on $CA$ are assigned $3$ or $1$

Prove that there must exist a small triangle whose vertices are marked by $1,2,3$.

IMO ILL 1970 p15

Given $\triangle ABC$, let $R$ be its circumradius and $q$ be the perimeter of its excentral triangle. Prove that $q\le 6\sqrt{3} R$.

Note: the excentral triangle has vertices which are the excenters of the original triangle.

Given $\triangle ABC$, let $R$ be its circumradius and $q$ be the perimeter of its excentral triangle. Prove that $q\le 6\sqrt{3} R$.

Note: the excentral triangle has vertices which are the excenters of the original triangle.

IMO ILL 1970 p17

In the tetrahedron $ABCD,\angle BDC=90^o$ and the foot of the perpendicular from $D$ to $ABC$ is the intersection of the altitudes of $ABC$. Prove that: $ (AB+BC+CA)^2\le6(AD^2+BD^2+CD^2). $ When do we have equality?

In the tetrahedron $ABCD,\angle BDC=90^o$ and the foot of the perpendicular from $D$ to $ABC$ is the intersection of the altitudes of $ABC$. Prove that: $ (AB+BC+CA)^2\le6(AD^2+BD^2+CD^2). $ When do we have equality?

IMO ILL 1970 p20

Let $M$ be an interior point of the tetrahedron $ABCD$. Prove that

Let $M$ be an interior point of the tetrahedron $ABCD$. Prove that

$ \begin{array}{c}\ \stackrel{\longrightarrow }{MA} \text{vol}(MBCD) +\stackrel{\longrightarrow }{MB} \text{vol}(MACD) +\stackrel{\longrightarrow }{MC} \text{vol}(MABD) + \stackrel{\longrightarrow }{MD} \text{vol}(MABC) = 0 \end{array}$

($\text{vol}(PQRS)$ denotes the volume of the tetrahedron $PQRS$).

IMO ILL 1970 p22

In the triangle $ABC$ let $B'$ and $C'$ be the midpoints of the sides $AC$ and $AB$ respectively and $H$ the foot of the altitude passing through the vertex $A$. Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles $AB'C'$,$BC'H$, and $B'CH$ have a common point $I$ and that the line $HI$ passes through the midpoint of the segment $B'C'.$

In the triangle $ABC$ let $B'$ and $C'$ be the midpoints of the sides $AC$ and $AB$ respectively and $H$ the foot of the altitude passing through the vertex $A$. Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles $AB'C'$,$BC'H$, and $B'CH$ have a common point $I$ and that the line $HI$ passes through the midpoint of the segment $B'C'.$

Prove that for any triangle with sides $a, b, c$ and area $P$ the following inequality holds:

$P \leq \frac{\sqrt 3}{4} (abc)^{2/3}.$

Find all triangles for which equality holds.

IMO ILL 1970 p32

Let there be given an acute angle $\angle AOB = 3\alpha$, where $\overline{OA}= \overline{OB}$. The point $A$ is the center of a circle with radius $\overline{OA}$. A line $s$ parallel to $OA$ passes through $B$. Inside the given angle a variable line $t$ is drawn through $O$. It meets the circle in $O$ and $C$ and the given line $s$ in $D$, where $\angle AOC = x$. Starting from an arbitrarily chosen position $t_0$ of $t$, the series $t_0, t_1, t_2, \ldots$ is determined by defining $\overline{BD_{i+1}}=\overline{OC_i}$ for each $i$ (in which $C_i$ and $D_i$ denote the positions of $C$ and $D$, corresponding to $t_i$). Making use of the graphical representations of $BD$ and $OC$ as functions of $x$, determine the behavior of $t_i$ for $i\to \infty$.

Let there be given an acute angle $\angle AOB = 3\alpha$, where $\overline{OA}= \overline{OB}$. The point $A$ is the center of a circle with radius $\overline{OA}$. A line $s$ parallel to $OA$ passes through $B$. Inside the given angle a variable line $t$ is drawn through $O$. It meets the circle in $O$ and $C$ and the given line $s$ in $D$, where $\angle AOC = x$. Starting from an arbitrarily chosen position $t_0$ of $t$, the series $t_0, t_1, t_2, \ldots$ is determined by defining $\overline{BD_{i+1}}=\overline{OC_i}$ for each $i$ (in which $C_i$ and $D_i$ denote the positions of $C$ and $D$, corresponding to $t_i$). Making use of the graphical representations of $BD$ and $OC$ as functions of $x$, determine the behavior of $t_i$ for $i\to \infty$.

IMO ILL 1970 p33

The vertices of a given square are clockwise lettered $A,B,C,D$. On the side $AB$ is situated a point $E$ such that $AE = AB/3$. Starting from an arbitrarily chosen point $P_0$ on segment $AE$ and going clockwise around the perimeter of the square, a series of points $P_0, P_1, P_2, \ldots$ is marked on the perimeter such that $P_iP_{i+1} = AB/3$ for each $i$. It will be clear that when $P_0$ is chosen in $A$ or in $E$, then some $P_i$ will coincide with $P_0$. Does this possibly also happen if $P_0$ is chosen otherwise?

The vertices of a given square are clockwise lettered $A,B,C,D$. On the side $AB$ is situated a point $E$ such that $AE = AB/3$. Starting from an arbitrarily chosen point $P_0$ on segment $AE$ and going clockwise around the perimeter of the square, a series of points $P_0, P_1, P_2, \ldots$ is marked on the perimeter such that $P_iP_{i+1} = AB/3$ for each $i$. It will be clear that when $P_0$ is chosen in $A$ or in $E$, then some $P_i$ will coincide with $P_0$. Does this possibly also happen if $P_0$ is chosen otherwise?

IMO ILL 1970 p34

In connection with a convex pentagon $ABCDE$ we consider the set of ten circles, each of which contains three of the vertices of the pentagon on its circumference. Is it possible that none of these circles contains the pentagon? Prove your answer.

In connection with a convex pentagon $ABCDE$ we consider the set of ten circles, each of which contains three of the vertices of the pentagon on its circumference. Is it possible that none of these circles contains the pentagon? Prove your answer.

IMO ILL 1970 p35

Find for every value of $n$ a set of numbers $p$ for which the following statement is true: Any convex $n$-gon can be divided into $p$ isosceles triangles.

Find for every value of $n$ a set of numbers $p$ for which the following statement is true: Any convex $n$-gon can be divided into $p$ isosceles triangles.

IMO ILL 1970 p39

$M$ is any point on the side $AB$ of the triangle $ABC$. $r,r_1,r_2$ are the radii of the circles inscribed in $ABC,AMC,BMC$. $q$ is the radius of the circle on the opposite side of $AB$ to $C$, touching the three sides of $AB$ and the extensions of $CA$ and $CB$. Similarly, $q_1$ and $q_2$. Prove that $r_1r_2q=rq_1q_2$.

$M$ is any point on the side $AB$ of the triangle $ABC$. $r,r_1,r_2$ are the radii of the circles inscribed in $ABC,AMC,BMC$. $q$ is the radius of the circle on the opposite side of $AB$ to $C$, touching the three sides of $AB$ and the extensions of $CA$ and $CB$. Similarly, $q_1$ and $q_2$. Prove that $r_1r_2q=rq_1q_2$.

IMO ILL 1970 p40

Let ABC be a triangle with angles $\alpha, \beta, \gamma$ commensurable with $\pi$. Starting from a point $P$ interior to the triangle, a ball reflects on the sides of $ABC$, respecting the law of reflection that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Prove that, supposing that the ball never reaches any of the vertices $A,B,C$, the set of all directions in which the ball will move through time is finite. In other words, its path from the moment $0$ to infinity consists of segments parallel to a finite set of lines.

Let ABC be a triangle with angles $\alpha, \beta, \gamma$ commensurable with $\pi$. Starting from a point $P$ interior to the triangle, a ball reflects on the sides of $ABC$, respecting the law of reflection that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Prove that, supposing that the ball never reaches any of the vertices $A,B,C$, the set of all directions in which the ball will move through time is finite. In other words, its path from the moment $0$ to infinity consists of segments parallel to a finite set of lines.

IMO ILL 1970 p41

Let a cube of side $1$ be given. Prove that there exists a point $A$ on the surface $S$ of the cube such that every point of $S$ can be joined to $A$ by a path on $S$ of length not exceeding $2$. Also prove that there is a point of $S$ that cannot be joined with $A$ by a path on $S$ of length less than $2$.

Let a cube of side $1$ be given. Prove that there exists a point $A$ on the surface $S$ of the cube such that every point of $S$ can be joined to $A$ by a path on $S$ of length not exceeding $2$. Also prove that there is a point of $S$ that cannot be joined with $A$ by a path on $S$ of length less than $2$.

IMO ILL 1970 p44

If $a, b, c$ are side lengths of a triangle, prove that

If $a, b, c$ are side lengths of a triangle, prove that

$(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) \geq 8(a + b - c)(b + c - a)(c + a - b).$

IMO ILL 1970 p45

Let $M$ be an interior point of tetrahedron $V ABC$. Denote by $A_1,B_1, C_1$ the points of intersection of lines $MA,MB,MC$ with the planes $VBC,V CA,V AB$, and by $A_2,B_2, C_2$ the points of intersection of lines $V A_1, VB_1, V C_1$ with the sides $BC,CA,AB$.

Let $M$ be an interior point of tetrahedron $V ABC$. Denote by $A_1,B_1, C_1$ the points of intersection of lines $MA,MB,MC$ with the planes $VBC,V CA,V AB$, and by $A_2,B_2, C_2$ the points of intersection of lines $V A_1, VB_1, V C_1$ with the sides $BC,CA,AB$.

(a) Prove that the volume of the tetrahedron $V A_2B_2C_2$ does not exceed one-fourth of the volume of $V ABC$.

(b) Calculate the volume of the tetrahedron $V_1A_1B_1C_1$ as a function of the volume of $V ABC$, where $V_1$ is the point of intersection of the line $VM$ with the plane $ABC$, and $M$ is the barycenter of $V ABC$.

IMO ILL 1970 p46

Given a triangle $ABC$ and a plane $\pi$ having no common points with the triangle, find a point $M$ such that the triangle determined by the points of intersection of the lines $MA,MB,MC$ with $\pi$ is congruent to the triangle $ABC$.

Given a triangle $ABC$ and a plane $\pi$ having no common points with the triangle, find a point $M$ such that the triangle determined by the points of intersection of the lines $MA,MB,MC$ with $\pi$ is congruent to the triangle $ABC$.

IMO ILL 1970 p50

The area of a triangle is $S$ and the sum of the lengths of its sides is $L$. Prove that $36S \leq L^2\sqrt 3$ and give a necessary and sufficient condition for equality.

The area of a triangle is $S$ and the sum of the lengths of its sides is $L$. Prove that $36S \leq L^2\sqrt 3$ and give a necessary and sufficient condition for equality.

IMO ILL 1970 p53

A square $ABCD$ is divided into $(n - 1)^2$ congruent squares, with sides parallel to the sides of the given square. Consider the grid of all $n^2$ corners obtained in this manner. Determine all integers $n$ for which it is possible to construct a non-degenerate parabola with its axis parallel to one side of the square and that passes through exactly $n$ points of the grid.

A square $ABCD$ is divided into $(n - 1)^2$ congruent squares, with sides parallel to the sides of the given square. Consider the grid of all $n^2$ corners obtained in this manner. Determine all integers $n$ for which it is possible to construct a non-degenerate parabola with its axis parallel to one side of the square and that passes through exactly $n$ points of the grid.

A turtle runs away from an UFO with a speed of $0.2 \ m/s$. The UFO flies $5$ meters above the ground, with a speed of $20 \ m/s$. The UFO's path is a broken line, where after flying in a straight path of length $\ell$ (in meters) it may turn through for any acute angle $\alpha$ such that $\tan \alpha < \frac{\ell}{1000}$. When the UFO's center approaches within $13$ meters of the turtle, it catches the turtle. Prove that for any initial position the UFO can catch the turtle.

IMO ILL 1970 p56

A square hole of depth $h$ whose base is of length $a$ is given. A dog is tied to the center of the square at the bottom of the hole by a rope of length $L >\sqrt{2a^2+h^2}$, and walks on the ground around the hole. The edges of the hole are smooth, so that the rope can freely slide along it. Find the shape and area of the territory accessible to the dog (whose size is neglected).

A square hole of depth $h$ whose base is of length $a$ is given. A dog is tied to the center of the square at the bottom of the hole by a rope of length $L >\sqrt{2a^2+h^2}$, and walks on the ground around the hole. The edges of the hole are smooth, so that the rope can freely slide along it. Find the shape and area of the territory accessible to the dog (whose size is neglected).

IMO ILL 1970 p58

Given $100$ coplanar points, no three collinear, prove that at most $70\%$ of the triangles formed by the points have all angles acute.

Given $100$ coplanar points, no three collinear, prove that at most $70\%$ of the triangles formed by the points have all angles acute.

IMO longlist 1971

The points $S(i, j)$ with integer Cartesian coordinates $0 < i \leq n, 0 < j \leq m, m \leq n$, form a lattice. Find the number of:

(a) rectangles with vertices on the lattice and sides parallel to the coordinate axes;

(b) squares with vertices on the lattice and sides parallel to the coordinate axes;

(c) squares in total, with vertices on the lattice.

Let squares be constructed on the sides $BC,CA,AB$ of a triangle $ABC$, all to the outside of the triangle, and let $A_1,B_1, C_1$ be their centers. Starting from the triangle $A_1B_1C_1$ one analogously obtains a triangle $A_2B_2C_2$. If $S, S_1, S_2$ denote the areas of triangles$ ABC,A_1B_1C_1,A_2B_2C_2$, respectively, prove that $S = 8S_1 - 4S_2.$

In a triangle $ABC$, let $H$ be its orthocenter, $O$ its circumcenter, and $R$ its circumradius. Prove that:

(a) $|OH| = R \sqrt{1-8 \cos \alpha \cdot \cos \beta \cdot \cos \gamma}$ where $\alpha, \beta, \gamma$ are angles of the triangle $ABC;$

(b) $O \equiv H$ if and only if $ABC$ is equilateral.

IMO ILL 1971 p8

Prove that for every positive integer $m$ we can find a finite set $S$ of points in the plane, such that given any point $A$ of $S$, there are exactly $m$ points in $S$ at unit distance from $A$.

Prove that for every positive integer $m$ we can find a finite set $S$ of points in the plane, such that given any point $A$ of $S$, there are exactly $m$ points in $S$ at unit distance from $A$.

The base of an inclined prism is a triangle $ABC$. The perpendicular projection of $B_1$, one of the top vertices, is the midpoint of $BC$. The dihedral angle between the lateral faces through $BC$ and $AB$ is $\alpha$, and the lateral edges of the prism make an angle $\beta$ with the base. If $r_1, r_2, r_3$ are exradii of a perpendicular section of the prism, assuming that in $ABC, \cos^2 A + \cos^2 B + \cos^2 C = 1, \angle A < \angle B < \angle C,$ and $BC = a$, calculate $r_1r_2 + r_1r_3 + r_2r_3.$

IMO ILL 1971 p15

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at $O$ at an angle $\theta$. Let us set $OA = a, OB = b, OC = c$, and $OD = d, c > a > 0$, and $d > b > 0.$

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at $O$ at an angle $\theta$. Let us set $OA = a, OB = b, OC = c$, and $OD = d, c > a > 0$, and $d > b > 0.$

Show that if there exists a right circular cone with vertex $V$, with the properties:

(1) its axis passes through $O$, and

(2) its curved surface passes through $A,B,C$ and $D,$ then

\[OV^2=\frac{d^2b^2(c + a)^2 - c^2a^2(d + b)^2}{ca(d - b)^2 - db(c - a)^2}.\]

Show also that if $\frac{c+a}{d+b}$ lies between $\frac{ca}{db}$ and $\sqrt{\frac{ca}{db}},$ and $\frac{c-a}{d-b}=\frac{ca}{db},$ then for a suitable choice of $\theta$, a right circular cone exists with properties (1) and (2).

We are given two mutually tangent circles in the plane, with radii $r_1, r_2$. A line intersects these circles in four points, determining three segments of equal length. Find this length as a function of $r_1$ and $r_2$ and the condition for the solvability of the problem.

IMO ILL 1971 p19

In a triangle $P_1P_2P_3$ let $P_iQ_i$ be the altitude from $P_i$ for $i = 1, 2,3$ ($Q_i$ being the foot of the altitude). The circle with diameter $P_iQ_i$ meets the two corresponding sides at two points different from $P_i.$ Denote the length of the segment whose endpoints are these two points by $l_i.$ Prove that $l_1 = l_2 = l_3.$

In a triangle $P_1P_2P_3$ let $P_iQ_i$ be the altitude from $P_i$ for $i = 1, 2,3$ ($Q_i$ being the foot of the altitude). The circle with diameter $P_iQ_i$ meets the two corresponding sides at two points different from $P_i.$ Denote the length of the segment whose endpoints are these two points by $l_i.$ Prove that $l_1 = l_2 = l_3.$

IMO ILL 1971 p20

Let $M$ be the circumcenter of a triangle $ABC.$ The line through $M$ perpendicular to $CM$ meets the lines $CA$ and $CB$ at $Q$ and $P,$ respectively. Prove that

Let $M$ be the circumcenter of a triangle $ABC.$ The line through $M$ perpendicular to $CM$ meets the lines $CA$ and $CB$ at $Q$ and $P,$ respectively. Prove that

\[\frac{\overline{CP}}{\overline{CM}} \cdot \frac{\overline{CQ}}{\overline{CM}}\cdot \frac{\overline{AB}}{\overline{PQ}}= 2.\]

IMO ILL 1971 p24

Let $A, B,$ and $C$ denote the angles of a triangle. If $\sin^2 A + \sin^2 B + \sin^2 C = 2$, prove that the triangle is right-angled.

Let $A, B,$ and $C$ denote the angles of a triangle. If $\sin^2 A + \sin^2 B + \sin^2 C = 2$, prove that the triangle is right-angled.

IMO ILL 1971 p25

Let $ABC,AA_1A_2,BB_1B_2, CC_1C_2$ be four equilateral triangles in the plane satisfying only that they are all positively oriented (i.e., in the counterclockwise direction). Denote the midpoints of the segments $A_2B_1,B_2C_1, C_2A_1$ by $P,Q,R$ in this order. Prove that the triangle $PQR$ is equilateral.

Let $ABC,AA_1A_2,BB_1B_2, CC_1C_2$ be four equilateral triangles in the plane satisfying only that they are all positively oriented (i.e., in the counterclockwise direction). Denote the midpoints of the segments $A_2B_1,B_2C_1, C_2A_1$ by $P,Q,R$ in this order. Prove that the triangle $PQR$ is equilateral.

IMO ILL 1971 p26

An infinite set of rectangles in the Cartesian coordinate plane is given. The vertices of each of these rectangles have coordinates $(0, 0), (p, 0), (p, q), (0, q)$ for some positive integers $p, q$. Show that there must exist two among them one of which is entirely contained in the other.

An infinite set of rectangles in the Cartesian coordinate plane is given. The vertices of each of these rectangles have coordinates $(0, 0), (p, 0), (p, q), (0, q)$ for some positive integers $p, q$. Show that there must exist two among them one of which is entirely contained in the other.

All faces of the tetrahedron $ABCD$ are acute-angled. Take a point $X$ in the interior of the segment $AB$, and similarly $Y$ in $BC, Z$ in $CD$ and $T$ in $AD$.

a.) If $\angle DAB+\angle BCD\ne\angle CDA+\angle ABC$, then prove none of the closed paths $XYZTX$ has minimal length;

b.) If $\angle DAB+\angle BCD=\angle CDA+\angle ABC$, then there are infinitely many shortest paths $XYZTX$, each with length $2AC\sin k$, where $2k=\angle BAC+\angle CAD+\angle DAB$.

IMO ILL 1971 p29

A rhombus with its incircle is given. At each vertex of the rhombus a circle is constructed that touches the incircle and two edges of the rhombus. These circles have radii $r_1,r_2$, while the incircle has radius $r$. Given that $r_1$ and $r_2$ are natural numbers and that $r_1r_2=r$, find $r_1,r_2,$ and $r$.

A rhombus with its incircle is given. At each vertex of the rhombus a circle is constructed that touches the incircle and two edges of the rhombus. These circles have radii $r_1,r_2$, while the incircle has radius $r$. Given that $r_1$ and $r_2$ are natural numbers and that $r_1r_2=r$, find $r_1,r_2,$ and $r$.

IMO ILL 1971 p32

Two half-lines $a$ and $b$, with the common endpoint $O$, make an acute angle $\alpha$. Let $A$ on $a$ and $B$ on $b$ be points such that $OA=OB$, and let $b$ be the line through $A$ parallel to $b$. Let $\beta$ be the circle with centre $B$ and radius $BO$. We construct a sequence of half-lines $c_1,c_2,c_3,\ldots $, all lying inside the angle $\alpha$, in the following manner:

Two half-lines $a$ and $b$, with the common endpoint $O$, make an acute angle $\alpha$. Let $A$ on $a$ and $B$ on $b$ be points such that $OA=OB$, and let $b$ be the line through $A$ parallel to $b$. Let $\beta$ be the circle with centre $B$ and radius $BO$. We construct a sequence of half-lines $c_1,c_2,c_3,\ldots $, all lying inside the angle $\alpha$, in the following manner:

(i) $c_i$ is given arbitrarily;

(ii) for every natural number $k$, the circle $\beta$ intercepts on $c_k$ a segment that is of the same length as the segment cut on $b'$ by $a$ and $c_{k+1}$.

Prove that the angle determined by the lines $c_k$ and $b$ has a limit as $k$ tends to infinity and find that limit.

Let $A,B,C$ be three points with integer coordinates in the plane and $K$ a circle with radius $R$ passing through $A,B,C$. Show that $AB\cdot BC\cdot CA\ge 2R$, and if the centre of $K$ is in the origin of the coordinates, show that $AB\cdot BC\cdot CA\ge 4R$.

IMO ILL 1971 p39

Two congruent equilateral triangles $ABC$ and $A'B'C'$ in the plane are given. Show that the midpoints of the segments $AA',BB', CC'$ either are collinear or form an equilateral triangle.

Two congruent equilateral triangles $ABC$ and $A'B'C'$ in the plane are given. Show that the midpoints of the segments $AA',BB', CC'$ either are collinear or form an equilateral triangle.

Let $L_i,\ i=1,2,3$, be line segments on the sides of an equilateral triangle, one segment on each side, with lengths $l_i,\ i=1,2,3$. By $L_i^{\ast}$ we denote the segment of length $l_i$ with its midpoint on the midpoint of the corresponding side of the triangle. Let $M(L)$ be the set of points in the plane whose orthogonal projections on the sides of the triangle are in $L_1,L_2$, and $L_3$, respectively; $M(L^{\ast})$ is defined correspondingly. Prove that if $l_1\ge l_2+l_3$, we have that the area of $M(L)$ is less than or equal to the area of $M(L^{\ast})$.

A broken line $A_1A_2 \ldots A_n$ is drawn in a $50 \times 50$ square, so that the distance from any point of the square to the broken line is less than $1$. Prove that its total length is greater than $1248.$

IMO ILL 1971 p48

The diagonals of a convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ intersect at a point $O$. Find all angles of this quadrilateral if $\measuredangle OBA=30^{\circ},\measuredangle OCB=45^{\circ},\measuredangle ODC=45^{\circ}$, and $\measuredangle OAD=30^{\circ}$.

The diagonals of a convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ intersect at a point $O$. Find all angles of this quadrilateral if $\measuredangle OBA=30^{\circ},\measuredangle OCB=45^{\circ},\measuredangle ODC=45^{\circ}$, and $\measuredangle OAD=30^{\circ}$.

IMO ILL 1971 p49 was missing

IMO ILL 1971 p50

Let $P_1$ be a convex polyhedron with vertices $A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_9$. Let $P_i$ be the polyhedron obtained from $P_1$ by a translation that moves $A_1$ to $A_i$. Prove that at least two of the polyhedra $P_1,P_2,\ldots,P_9$ have an interior point in common.

Let $P_1$ be a convex polyhedron with vertices $A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_9$. Let $P_i$ be the polyhedron obtained from $P_1$ by a translation that moves $A_1$ to $A_i$. Prove that at least two of the polyhedra $P_1,P_2,\ldots,P_9$ have an interior point in common.

IMO ILL 1971 p51

Suppose that the sides $AB$ and $DC$ of a convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ are not parallel. On the sides $BC$ and $AD$, pairs of points $(M,N)$ and $(K,L)$ are chosen such that $BM=MN=NC$ and $AK=KL=LD$. Prove that the areas of triangles $OKM$ and $OLN$ are different, where $O$ is the intersection point of $AB$ and $CD$.

IMO ILL 1972 p3

On a line a set of segments is given of total length less than $n$. Prove that every set of $n$ points of the line can be translated in some direction along the line for a distance smaller than $\frac{n}{2}$ so that none of the points remain on the segments.

IMO ILL 1972 p4

You have a triangle, $ABC$. Draw in the internal angle trisectors. Let the two trisectors closest to $AB$ intersect at $D$, the two trisectors closest to $BC$ intersect at $E$, and the two closest to $AC$ at $F$. Prove that $DEF$ is equilateral.

IMO ILL 1972 p5

Given a pyramid whose base is an $n$-gon inscribable in a circle, let $H$ be the projection of the top vertex of the pyramid to its base. Prove that the projections of $H$ to the lateral edges of the pyramid lie on a circle.

IMO ILL 1972 p8

We are given $3n$ points $A_1,A_2, \ldots , A_{3n}$ in the plane, no three of them collinear. Prove that one can construct $n$ disjoint triangles with vertices at the points $A_i.$

IMO ILL 1972 p9

Given natural numbers $k$ and $n, k \le n, n \ge 3,$ find the set of all values in the interval $(0, \pi)$ that the $k^{th}-$largest among the interior angles of a convex $n$-gon can take.

IMO ILL 1972 p10

Given five points in the plane, no three of which are collinear, prove that there can be found at least two obtuse-angled triangles with vertices at the given points. Construct an example in which there are exactly two such triangles.

IMO ILL 1972 p12

A circle $k = (S, r)$ is given and a hexagon $AA'BB'CC'$ inscribed in it. The lengths of sides of the hexagon satisfy $AA' = A'B, BB' = B'C, CC' = C'A$. Prove that the area $P$ of triangle $ABC$ is not greater than the area $P'$ of triangle $A'B'C'$. When does $P = P'$ hold?

IMO ILL 1972 p13

Given a sphere $K$, determine the set of all points $A$ that are vertices of some parallelograms $ABCD$ that satisfy $AC \le BD$ and whose entire diagonal $BD$ is contained in $K$.

IMO ILL 1972 p14 (Part $(b)$ is IMO 1972 Problem 6)

$(a)$ A plane $\pi$ passes through the vertex $O$ of the regular tetrahedron $OPQR$. We define $p, q, r$ to be the signed distances of $P,Q,R$ from $\pi$ measured along a directed normal to $\pi$. Prove that \[p^2 + q^2 + r^2 + (q - r)^2 + (r - p)^2 + (p - q)^2 = 2a^2,\] where $a$ is the length of an edge of a tetrahedron.

$(b)$ Given four parallel planes not all of which are coincident, show that a regular tetrahedron exists with a vertex on each plane.

IMO ILL 1972 p17

A solid right circular cylinder with height $h$ and base-radius $r$ has a solid hemisphere of radius $r$ resting upon it. The center of the hemisphere $O$ is on the axis of the cylinder. Let $P$ be any point on the surface of the hemisphere and $Q$ the point on the base circle of the cylinder that is furthest from $P$ (measuring along the surface of the combined solid). A string is stretched over the surface from $P$ to $Q$ so as to be as short as possible. Show that if the string is not in a plane, the straight line $PO$ when produced cuts the curved surface of the cylinder.

IMO ILL 1972 p20

Let $n_1, n_2$ be positive integers. Consider in a plane $E$ two disjoint sets of points $M_1$ and $M_2$ consisting of $2n_1$ and $2n_2$ points, respectively, and such that no three points of the union $M_1 \cup M_2$ are collinear. Prove that there exists a straightline $g$ with the following property: Each of the two half-planes determined by $g$ on $E$ ($g$ not being included in either) contains exactly half of the points of $M_1$ and exactly half of the points of $M_2.$

IMO ILL 1972 p21

Prove the following assertion: The four altitudes of a tetrahedron $ABCD$ intersect in a point if and only if \[AB^2 + CD^2 = BC^2 + AD^2 = CA^2 + BD^2.\]

IMO ILL 1972 p 27

Given $n>4$, prove that every cyclic quadrilateral can be dissected into $n$ cyclic quadrilaterals.

IMO ILL 1972 p28

The lengths of the sides of a rectangle are given to be odd integers. Prove that there does not exist a point within that rectangle that has integer distances to each of its four vertices.

IMO ILL 1972 p29

Let $A,B,C$ be points on the sides $B_1C_1, C_1A_1,A_1B_1$ of a triangle $A_1B_1C_1$ such that $A_1A,B_1B,C_1C$ are the bisectors of angles of the triangle. We have that $AC = BC$ and $A_1C_1 \neq B_1C_1.$ $(a)$ Prove that $C_1$ lies on the circumcircle of the triangle $ABC$. $(b)$ Suppose that $\angle BAC_1 =\frac{\pi}{6};$ find the form of triangle $ABC$.

IMO ILL 1972 p30

Consider a sequence of circles $K_1,K_2,K_3,K_4, \ldots$ of radii $r_1, r_2, r_3, r_4, \ldots$ , respectively, situated inside a triangle $ABC$. The circle $K_1$ is tangent to $AB$ and $AC$; $K_2$ is tangent to $K_1$, $BA$, and $BC$; $K_3$ is tangent to $K_2$, $CA$, and $CB$; $K_4$ is tangent to $K_3$, $AB$, and $AC$; etc. (a) Prove the relation \[r_1 \cot \frac 12 A+ 2 \sqrt{r_1r_2} + r_2 \cot \frac 12 B = r \left(\cot \frac 12 A + \cot \frac 12 B \right) \] where $r$ is the radius of the incircle of the triangle $ABC$. Deduce the existence of a $t_1$ such that \[r_1=r \cot \frac 12 B \cot \frac 12 C \sin^2 t_1\] (b) Prove that the sequence of circles $K_1,K_2, \ldots $ is periodic.

IMO ILL 1972 p33

A rectangle $ABCD$ is given whose sides have lengths $3$ and $2n$, where $n$ is a natural number. Denote by $U(n)$ the number of ways in which one can cut the rectangle into rectangles of side lengths $1$ and $2$. $(a)$ Prove that \[U(n + 1)+U(n -1) = 4U(n);\] $(b)$ Prove that \[U(n) =\frac{1}{2\sqrt{3}}[(\sqrt{3} + 1)(2 +\sqrt{3})^n + (\sqrt{3} - 1)(2 -\sqrt{3})^n].\]

IMO ILL 1972 p36

A finite number of parallel segments in the plane are given with the property that for any three of the segments there is a line intersecting each of them. Prove that there exists a line that intersects all the given segments.

IMO ILL 1972 p38

Congruent rectangles with sides $m(cm)$ and $n(cm)$ are given ($m, n$ positive integers). Characterize the rectangles that can be constructed from these rectangles (in the fashion of a jigsaw puzzle). (The number of rectangles is unbounded.)

IMO ILL 1972 p43

A fixed point $A$ inside a circle is given. Consider all chords $XY$ of the circle such that $\angle XAY$ is a right angle, and for all such chords construct the point $M$ symmetric to $A$ with respect to $XY$ . Find the locus of points $M$.

IMO ILL 1972 p45

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral whose diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ intersect at point $O$. Let a line through $O$ intersect segment $AB$ at $M$ and segment $CD$ at $N$. Prove that the segment $MN$ is not longer than at least one of the segments $AC$ and $BD$.

Suppose that the sides $AB$ and $DC$ of a convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ are not parallel. On the sides $BC$ and $AD$, pairs of points $(M,N)$ and $(K,L)$ are chosen such that $BM=MN=NC$ and $AK=KL=LD$. Prove that the areas of triangles $OKM$ and $OLN$ are different, where $O$ is the intersection point of $AB$ and $CD$.

IMO longlist 1972

IMO ILL 1972 p3

On a line a set of segments is given of total length less than $n$. Prove that every set of $n$ points of the line can be translated in some direction along the line for a distance smaller than $\frac{n}{2}$ so that none of the points remain on the segments.

IMO ILL 1972 p4

You have a triangle, $ABC$. Draw in the internal angle trisectors. Let the two trisectors closest to $AB$ intersect at $D$, the two trisectors closest to $BC$ intersect at $E$, and the two closest to $AC$ at $F$. Prove that $DEF$ is equilateral.

IMO ILL 1972 p5

Given a pyramid whose base is an $n$-gon inscribable in a circle, let $H$ be the projection of the top vertex of the pyramid to its base. Prove that the projections of $H$ to the lateral edges of the pyramid lie on a circle.

IMO ILL 1972 p8

We are given $3n$ points $A_1,A_2, \ldots , A_{3n}$ in the plane, no three of them collinear. Prove that one can construct $n$ disjoint triangles with vertices at the points $A_i.$

IMO ILL 1972 p9

Given natural numbers $k$ and $n, k \le n, n \ge 3,$ find the set of all values in the interval $(0, \pi)$ that the $k^{th}-$largest among the interior angles of a convex $n$-gon can take.

IMO ILL 1972 p10

Given five points in the plane, no three of which are collinear, prove that there can be found at least two obtuse-angled triangles with vertices at the given points. Construct an example in which there are exactly two such triangles.

IMO ILL 1972 p12

A circle $k = (S, r)$ is given and a hexagon $AA'BB'CC'$ inscribed in it. The lengths of sides of the hexagon satisfy $AA' = A'B, BB' = B'C, CC' = C'A$. Prove that the area $P$ of triangle $ABC$ is not greater than the area $P'$ of triangle $A'B'C'$. When does $P = P'$ hold?

IMO ILL 1972 p13

Given a sphere $K$, determine the set of all points $A$ that are vertices of some parallelograms $ABCD$ that satisfy $AC \le BD$ and whose entire diagonal $BD$ is contained in $K$.

IMO ILL 1972 p14 (Part $(b)$ is IMO 1972 Problem 6)

$(a)$ A plane $\pi$ passes through the vertex $O$ of the regular tetrahedron $OPQR$. We define $p, q, r$ to be the signed distances of $P,Q,R$ from $\pi$ measured along a directed normal to $\pi$. Prove that \[p^2 + q^2 + r^2 + (q - r)^2 + (r - p)^2 + (p - q)^2 = 2a^2,\] where $a$ is the length of an edge of a tetrahedron.

$(b)$ Given four parallel planes not all of which are coincident, show that a regular tetrahedron exists with a vertex on each plane.

IMO ILL 1972 p17

A solid right circular cylinder with height $h$ and base-radius $r$ has a solid hemisphere of radius $r$ resting upon it. The center of the hemisphere $O$ is on the axis of the cylinder. Let $P$ be any point on the surface of the hemisphere and $Q$ the point on the base circle of the cylinder that is furthest from $P$ (measuring along the surface of the combined solid). A string is stretched over the surface from $P$ to $Q$ so as to be as short as possible. Show that if the string is not in a plane, the straight line $PO$ when produced cuts the curved surface of the cylinder.

IMO ILL 1972 p20

Let $n_1, n_2$ be positive integers. Consider in a plane $E$ two disjoint sets of points $M_1$ and $M_2$ consisting of $2n_1$ and $2n_2$ points, respectively, and such that no three points of the union $M_1 \cup M_2$ are collinear. Prove that there exists a straightline $g$ with the following property: Each of the two half-planes determined by $g$ on $E$ ($g$ not being included in either) contains exactly half of the points of $M_1$ and exactly half of the points of $M_2.$

IMO ILL 1972 p21

Prove the following assertion: The four altitudes of a tetrahedron $ABCD$ intersect in a point if and only if \[AB^2 + CD^2 = BC^2 + AD^2 = CA^2 + BD^2.\]

IMO ILL 1972 p 27

Given $n>4$, prove that every cyclic quadrilateral can be dissected into $n$ cyclic quadrilaterals.

IMO ILL 1972 p28

The lengths of the sides of a rectangle are given to be odd integers. Prove that there does not exist a point within that rectangle that has integer distances to each of its four vertices.

IMO ILL 1972 p29

Let $A,B,C$ be points on the sides $B_1C_1, C_1A_1,A_1B_1$ of a triangle $A_1B_1C_1$ such that $A_1A,B_1B,C_1C$ are the bisectors of angles of the triangle. We have that $AC = BC$ and $A_1C_1 \neq B_1C_1.$ $(a)$ Prove that $C_1$ lies on the circumcircle of the triangle $ABC$. $(b)$ Suppose that $\angle BAC_1 =\frac{\pi}{6};$ find the form of triangle $ABC$.

IMO ILL 1972 p30

Consider a sequence of circles $K_1,K_2,K_3,K_4, \ldots$ of radii $r_1, r_2, r_3, r_4, \ldots$ , respectively, situated inside a triangle $ABC$. The circle $K_1$ is tangent to $AB$ and $AC$; $K_2$ is tangent to $K_1$, $BA$, and $BC$; $K_3$ is tangent to $K_2$, $CA$, and $CB$; $K_4$ is tangent to $K_3$, $AB$, and $AC$; etc. (a) Prove the relation \[r_1 \cot \frac 12 A+ 2 \sqrt{r_1r_2} + r_2 \cot \frac 12 B = r \left(\cot \frac 12 A + \cot \frac 12 B \right) \] where $r$ is the radius of the incircle of the triangle $ABC$. Deduce the existence of a $t_1$ such that \[r_1=r \cot \frac 12 B \cot \frac 12 C \sin^2 t_1\] (b) Prove that the sequence of circles $K_1,K_2, \ldots $ is periodic.

IMO ILL 1972 p33

A rectangle $ABCD$ is given whose sides have lengths $3$ and $2n$, where $n$ is a natural number. Denote by $U(n)$ the number of ways in which one can cut the rectangle into rectangles of side lengths $1$ and $2$. $(a)$ Prove that \[U(n + 1)+U(n -1) = 4U(n);\] $(b)$ Prove that \[U(n) =\frac{1}{2\sqrt{3}}[(\sqrt{3} + 1)(2 +\sqrt{3})^n + (\sqrt{3} - 1)(2 -\sqrt{3})^n].\]

IMO ILL 1972 p36

A finite number of parallel segments in the plane are given with the property that for any three of the segments there is a line intersecting each of them. Prove that there exists a line that intersects all the given segments.

IMO ILL 1972 p38

Congruent rectangles with sides $m(cm)$ and $n(cm)$ are given ($m, n$ positive integers). Characterize the rectangles that can be constructed from these rectangles (in the fashion of a jigsaw puzzle). (The number of rectangles is unbounded.)

IMO ILL 1972 p43

A fixed point $A$ inside a circle is given. Consider all chords $XY$ of the circle such that $\angle XAY$ is a right angle, and for all such chords construct the point $M$ symmetric to $A$ with respect to $XY$ . Find the locus of points $M$.

IMO ILL 1972 p45

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral whose diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ intersect at point $O$. Let a line through $O$ intersect segment $AB$ at $M$ and segment $CD$ at $N$. Prove that the segment $MN$ is not longer than at least one of the segments $AC$ and $BD$.

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