Poland Finals 1988 - 2018 60p

geometry problems from Polish Mathematical Olympiads - Finals
with aops links in the names

1988 - 2018

$W$ is a polygon which has a center of symmetry $S$ such that if $P$ belongs to $W$, then so does $P'$, where $S$ is the midpoint of $PP'$. Show that there is a parallelogram $V$ containing $W$ such that the midpoint of each side of $V$ lies on the border of $W$.

1988 Polish Finals P6
Find the largest possible volume for a tetrahedron which lies inside a hemisphere of radius $1$.

1989 Polish Finals P2
$k_1, k_2, k_3$ are three circles. $k_2$ and $k_3$ touch externally at $P$, $k_3$ and $k_1$ touch externally at $Q$, and $k_1$ and $k_2$ touch externally at $R$. The line $PQ$ meets $k_1$ again at $S$, the line $PR$ meets $k_1$ again at $T$. The line $RS$ meets $k_2$ again at $U$, and the line $QT$ meets $k_3$ again at $V$. Show that $P, U, V$ are collinear.

1989 Polish Finals P5
Three circles of radius $a$ are drawn on the surface of a sphere of radius $r$. Each pair of circles touches externally and the three circles all lie in one hemisphere. Find the radius of a circle on the surface of the sphere which touches all three circles.

1990 Polish Finals P4
A triangle whose all sides have length not smaller than $1$ is inscribed in a square of side length $1$. Prove that the center of the square lies inside the triangle or on its boundary.

1991 Polish Finals P1
Prove or disprove that there exist two tetrahedra $T_1$ and $T_2$ such that:
(i) the volume of $T_1$ is greater than that of $T_2$;
(ii) the area of any face of $T_1$ does not exceed the area of any face of $T_2$.

1991 Polish Finals P5
Two noncongruent circles $k_1$ and $k_2$ are exterior to each other. Their common tangents intersect the line through their centers at points $A$ and $B$. Let $P$ be any point of $k_1$. Prove that there is a diameter of $k_2$ with one endpoint on line $PA$ and the other on $PB$.

1992 Polish Finals P1
Segments $AC$ and $BD$ meet at $P$, and $|PA| = |PD|$, $|PB| = |PC|$. $O$ is the circumcenter of the triangle $PAB$. Show that $OP$ and $CD$ are perpendicular.

1992 Polish Finals P5
The base of a regular pyramid is a regular $2n$-gon $A_1A_2...A_{2n}$. A sphere passing through the top vertex $S$ of the pyramid cuts the edge $SA_i$ at $B_i$ (for $i = 1, 2, ... , 2n$). Show that $\sum\limits_{i=1}^n SB_{2i-1} = \sum\limits_{i=1}^n SB_{2i}$.

1993 Polish Finals P2
A circle center $O$ is inscribed in the quadrilateral $ABCD$. $AB$ is parallel to and longer than $CD$ and has midpoint $M$. The line $OM$ meets $CD$ at $F$. $CD$ touches the circle at $E$. Show that $DE = CF$ iff $AB = 2CD$.

1993 Polish Finals P6
Find out whether it is possible to determine the volume of a tetrahedron knowing the areas of its faces and its circumradius.

1994 Polish Finals P2
Let be given two parallel lines $k$ and $l$, and a circle not intersecting $k$. Consider a variable point $A$ on the line $k$. The two tangents from this point $A$ to the circle intersect the line $l$ at $B$ and $C$. Let $m$ be the line through the point $A$ and the midpoint of the segment $BC$. Prove that all the lines $m$ (as $A$ varies) have a common point.

1994 Polish Finals P5
A parallelopiped has vertices $A_1, A_2, ... , A_8$ and center $O$. Show that:
$ 4 \sum_{i=1}^8 OA_i ^2 \leq \left(\sum_{i=1}^8 OA_i \right) ^2  $

1995 Polish Finals P2
The diagonals of a convex pentagon divide it into a small pentagon and ten triangles. What is the largest number of the triangles that can have the same area?

1995 Polish Finals P6
$PA, PB, PC$ are three rays in space. Show that there is just one pair of points $B', C$' with $B'$ on the ray $PB$ and $C'$ on the ray $PC$ such that $PC' + B'C' = PA + AB'$ and $PB' + B'C' = PA + AC'$.

1996 Polish Finals P2
Let $P$ be a point inside a triangle $ABC$ such that $\angle PBC = \angle PCA < \angle PAB$. The line $PB$ meets the circumcircle of triangle $ABC$ at a point $E$ (apart from $B$). The line $CE$ meets the circumcircle of triangle $APE$ at a point $F$ (apart from $E$). Show that the ratio $\frac{\left|APEF\right|}{\left|ABP\right|}$ does not depend on the point $P$, where the notation $\left|P_1P_2...P_n\right|$ stands for the area of an arbitrary polygon $P_1P_2...P_n$.

1996 Polish Finals P4
$ABCD$ is a tetrahedron with $\angle BAC = \angle ACD$ and $\angle ABD = \angle BDC$. Show that $AB = CD$.

1997 Polish Finals P3
In a tetrahedron $ABCD$, the medians of the faces $ABD$, $ACD$, $BCD$ from $D$ make equal angles with the corresponding edges $AB$, $AC$, $BC$. Prove that each of these faces has area less than or equal to the sum of the areas of the other two faces.

1997 Polish Finals P5
$ABCDE$ is a convex pentagon such that $DC = DE$ and $\angle C = \angle E = 90^{\cdot}$. $F$ is a point on the side $AB$ such that $\frac{AF}{BF}= \frac{AE}{BC}$. Show that $\angle FCE = \angle ADE$ and $\angle FEC = \angle BDC$.

1998 Polish Finals P3
$PABCDE$ is a pyramid with $ABCDE$ a convex pentagon. A plane meets the edges $PA, PB, PC, PD, PE$ in points $A', B', C', D', E'$ distinct from $A, B, C, D, E$ and $P$. For each of the quadrilaterals $ABB'A', BCC'B, CDD'C', DEE'D', EAA'E'$ take the intersection of the diagonals. Show that the five intersections are coplanar.

1998 Polish Finals P5
The points $D, E$ on the side $AB$ of the triangle $ABC$ are such that $\frac{AD}{DB}\frac{AE}{EB} = \left(\frac{AC}{CB}\right)^2$. Show that $\angle ACD = \angle BCE$.

1999 Polish Finals P1
Let $D$ be a point on the side $BC$ of a triangle $ABC$ such that $AD > BC$. Let $E$ be a point on the side $AC$ such that $\frac{AE}{EC} = \frac{BD}{AD-BC}$. Show that $AD > BE$.

1999 Polish Finals P6
Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex hexagon such that $\angle B+\angle D+\angle F=360^{\circ }$ and $ \frac{AB}{BC} \cdot \frac{CD}{DE} \cdot \frac{EF}{FA} = 1. $ Prove that $ \frac{BC}{CA} \cdot \frac{AE}{EF} \cdot \frac{FD}{DB} = 1.  $

2000 Polish Finals P2
Let a triangle $ABC$ satisfy $AC = BC$; in other words, let $ABC$ be an isosceles triangle with base $AB$. Let $P$ be a point inside the triangle $ABC$ such that $\angle PAB = \angle PBC$. Denote by $M$ the midpoint of the segment $AB$. Show that $\angle APM + \angle BPC = 180^{\circ}$.

2000 Polish Finals P4
$PA_1A_2...A_n$ is a pyramid. The base $A_1A_2...A_n$ is a regular n-gon. The apex $P$ is placed so that the lines $PA_i$ all make an angle $60^{\cdot}$ with the plane of the base. For which $n$ is it possible to find $B_i$ on $PA_i$ for $i = 2, 3, ... , n$ such that $A_1B_2 + B_2B_3 + B_3B_4 + ... + B_{n-1}B_n + B_nA_1 < 2A_1P$?

2001 Polish Finals P2
Given a regular tetrahedron  $ABCD$ with edge length $1$ and a point $P$ inside it.
What is the maximum value of  $\left|PA\right|+\left|PB\right|+\left|PC\right|+\left|PD\right|$.

2001 Polish Finals P5
Let $ABCD$ be a parallelogram and let $K$ and $L$ be points on the segments $BC$ and $CD$, respectively, such that $BK\cdot AD=DL\cdot AB$. Let the lines $DK$ and $BL$ intersect at $P$. Show that $\measuredangle DAP=\measuredangle BAC$.

2002 Polish Finals P2
On sides $AC$ and $BC$ of acute-angled triangle $ABC$ rectangles with equal areas $ACPQ$ and $BKLC$ were built exterior. Prove that midpoint of $PL$, point $C$ and center of circumcircle are collinear.

2002 Polish Finals P5
There is given a triangle $ABC$ in a space. A sphere does not intersect the plane of $ABC$. There are $4$ points $K, L, M, P$ on the sphere such that $AK, BL, CM$ are tangent to the sphere and $\frac{AK}{AP} = \frac{BL}{BP} = \frac{CM}{CP}$. Show that the sphere touches the circumsphere of $ABCP$.

2003 Polish Finals P1
In an acute-angled triangle $ABC, CD$ is the altitude. A line through the midpoint $M$ of side $AB$ meets the rays $CA$ and $CB$ at $K$ and $L$ respectively such that $CK = CL.$ Point $S$ is the circumcenter of the triangle $CKL.$ Prove that $SD = SM.$

2003 Polish Finals P5
The sphere inscribed in a tetrahedron $ABCD$ touches face $ABC$ at point $H$. Another sphere touches face $ABC$ at $O$ and the planes containing the other three faces at points exterior to the faces. Prove that if $O$ is the circumcenter of triangle $ABC$, then $H$ is the orthocenter of that triangle.

2004 Polish Finals P1
A point $ D$ is taken on the side $ AB$ of a triangle $ ABC$. Two circles passing through $ D$ and touching $ AC$ and $ BC$ at $ A$ and $ B$ respectively intersect again at point $ E$. Let $ F$ be the point symmetric to $ C$ with respect to the perpendicular bisector of $ AB$. Prove that the points $ D,E,F$ lie on a line.

2004 Polish Finals P5
Find the greatest possible number of lines in space that all pass through a single point and the angle between any two of them is the same.

2005 Polish Finals P2
The points $A, B, C, D$ lie in this order on a circle $o$. The point $S$ lies inside $o$ and has properties $\angle SAD=\angle SCB$ and $\angle SDA= \angle SBC$. Line which in which angle bisector of $\angle ASB$ in included cut the circle in points  $P$ and $Q$. Prove $PS =QS$.

Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex hexagon satisfying $AC=DF$, $CE=FB$ and $EA=BD$. Prove that the lines connecting the midpoints of opposite sides of the hexagon $ABCDEF$ intersect in one point.

2006 Polish Finals P5
Tetrahedron $ABCD$ in which $AB=CD$ is given. Sphere inscribed in it is tangent to faces $ABC$ and $ABD$ respectively in $K$ and $L$. Prove that if points $K$ and $L$ are centroids of faces $ABC$ and $ABD$ then tetrahedron $ABCD$ is regular.

2007 Polish Finals P1
In acute triangle $ABC$ point $O$ is circumcenter, segment $CD$ is a height, point $E$ lies on side $AB$ and point $M$ is a midpoint of $CE$. Line through $M$ perpendicular to $OM$ cuts lines $AC$ and $BC$ respectively in $K$, $L$. Prove that $\frac{LM}{MK}=\frac{AD}{DB}$

2007 Polish Finals P5
In tetrahedron $ABCD$ following equalities hold:
$\angle BAC+\angle BDC=\angle ABD+\angle ACD$
$\angle BAD+\angle BCD=\angle ABC+\angle ADC$
Prove that center of sphere circumscribed about ABCD lies on a line through midpoints of $AB$ and $CD$.

2008 Polish Finals P3
In a convex pentagon $ ABCDE$ in which $ BC=DE$ following equalities hold:
$ \angle ABE =\angle CAB =\angle AED-90^{\circ},\qquad \angle ACB=\angle ADE$
Show that $ BCDE$ is a parallelogram.

2008 Polish Finals P5
Let $ R$ be a parallelopiped. Let us assume that areas of all intersections of $ R$ with planes containing centers of three edges of $ R$ pairwisely not parallel and having no common points, are equal. Show that $ R$ is a cuboid.

2009 Polish Finals P1
Each vertex of a convex hexagon is the center of a circle whose radius is equal to the shorter side of the hexagon that contains the vertex. Show that if the intersection of all six circles (including their boundaries) is not empty, then the hexagon is regular.

2009 Polish Finals P5
A sphere is inscribed in tetrahedron $ ABCD$ and is tangent to faces  $ BCD,CAD,ABD,ABC$ at points $ P,Q,R,S$ respectively. Segment $ PT$ is the sphere's diameter, and lines $ TA,TQ,TR,TS$ meet the plane $ BCD$ at points $ A',Q',R',S'$. respectively. Show that $ A$ is the center of a circumcircle on the triangle $ S'Q'R'$.

2010 Polish Finals P3
$ABCD$ is a parallelogram in which angle $DAB$ is acute. Points $A, P, B, D$ lie on one circle in exactly this order. Lines $AP$ and $CD$ intersect in $Q$. Point $O$ is the circumcenter of the triangle $CPQ$. Prove that if $D \neq O$ then the lines $AD$ and $DO$ are perpendicular.

2010 Polish Finals P4
On the side $BC$ of the triangle $ABC$ there are two points $D$ and $E$ such that $BD < BE$. Denote by $p_1$ and $p_2$ the perimeters of triangles $ABC$ and $ADE$ respectively. Prove that
$p_1 > p_2 + 2\cdot \min\{BD, EC\}.$

2011 Polish Finals P2
The incircle of triangle $ABC$ is tangent to $BC,CA,AB$ at $D,E,F$ respectively. Consider the triangle formed by the line joining the midpoints of $AE,AF$, the line joining the midpoints of $BF,BD$, and the line joining the midpoints of $CD,CE$. Prove that the circumcenter of this triangle coincides with the circumcenter of triangle $ABC$.

2011 Polish Finals P5
In a tetrahedron $ABCD$, the four altitudes are concurrent at $H$. The line $DH$ intersects the plane $ABC$ at $P$ and the circumsphere of $ABCD$ at $Q\neq D$. Prove that $PQ=2HP$.

2012 Polish Finals P3
Triangle $ABC$ with $AB = AC$ is inscribed in circle $o$. Circles $o_1$ and $o_2$ are internally tangent to circle $o$ in points $P$ and $Q$, respectively, and they are tangent to segments $AB$ and $AC$, respectively, and they are disjoint with the interior of triangle $ABC$. Let $m$ be a line tangent to circles $o_1$ and $o_2$, such that points $P$ and $Q$ lie on the opposite side than point $A$. Line $m$ cuts segments $AB$ and $AC$ in points $K$ and $L$, respectively. Prove, that intersection point of lines $PK$ and $QL$ lies on bisector of angle $BAC$.

2012 Polish Finals P5
Point $O$ is a center of circumcircle of acute triangle $ABC$, bisector of angle $BAC$ cuts side $BC$ in point $D$. Let $M$ be a point such that, $MC \perp BC$ and $MA \perp AD$. Lines $BM$ and $OA$ intersect in point $P$. Show that circle of center in point $P$ passing through a point $A$ is tangent to line $BC$.

2013 Polish Finals P3
Given is a quadrilateral $ABCD$ in which we can inscribe circle. The segments $AB, BC, CD$ and $DA$ are the diameters of the circles $o_1, o_2, o_3$ and $o_4$, respectively. Prove that there exists a circle tangent to all of the circles $o_1, o_2, o_3$ and $o_4$.

2013 Polish Finals P4
Given is a tetrahedron $ABCD$ in which $AB=CD$ and the sum of measures of the angles $BAD$ and $BCD$ equals $180$ degrees. Prove that the measure of the angle $BAD$ is larger than the measure of the angle $ADC$.

2014 Polish Finals P3
A tetrahedron $ABCD$ with acute-angled faces is inscribed in a sphere with center $O$. A line passing through $O$ perpendicular to plane $ABC$ crosses the sphere at point $D'$ that lies on the opposide side of plane $ABC$ than point $D$. Line $DD'$ crosses plane $ABC$ in point $P$ that lies inside the triangle $ABC$. Prove, that if $\angle APB=2\angle ACB$, then $\angle ADD'=\angle BDD'$.

2014 Polish Finals P6
In an acute triangle $ABC$ point $D$ is the point of intersection of altitude $h_a$ and side $BC$, and points $M, N$ are orthogonal projections of point $D$ on sides $AB$ and $AC$. Lines $MN$ and $AD$ cross the circumcircle of triangle $ABC$ at points $P, Q$ and $A, R$. Prove that point $D$ is the center of the incircle of $PQR$.

2015 Polish Finals P1
In triangle $ABC$ the angle $\angle A$ is the smallest. Points $D, E$ lie on sides $AB, AC$ so that $\angle CBE=\angle DCB=\angle BAC$. Prove that the midpoints of $AB, AC, BE, CD$ lie on one circle.

2015 Polish Finals P5
Prove that diagonals of a convex quadrilateral are perpendicular if and only if inside of the quadrilateral there is a point, whose orthogonal projections on sides of the quadrilateral are vertices of a rectangle.

2016 Polish Finals P2
Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral circumscribed on the circle $\omega$ with center $I$. Assume $\angle BAD+ \angle ADC <\pi$. Let $M, \ N$ be points of tangency of $\omega $ with $AB, \ CD$ respectively. Consider a point $K \in MN$ such that $AK=AM$. Prove that $ID$ bisects the segment $KN$.

2016 Polish Finals P6
Let $I$ be an incenter of $\triangle ABC$. Denote $D, \ S \neq A$ intersections of $AI$ with $BC, \ O(ABC)$ respectively. Let $K, \ L$ be incenters of $\triangle DSB, \ \triangle DCS$. Let  $P$ be a reflection of $I$ with the respect to $KL$. Prove that $BP \perp CP$.

2017 Polish Finals P1
Points $P$ and $Q$ lie respectively on sides $AB$ and $AC$ of a triangle $ABC$ and $BP=CQ$. Segments $BQ$ and $CP$ cross at $R$. Circumscribed circles of triangles $BPR$ and $CQR$ cross again at point $S$ different from $R$. Prove that point $S$ lies on the bisector of angle $BAC$.

2017 Polish Finals P5
Point $M$ is the midpoint of $BC$ of a triangle $ABC$, in which $AB=AC$. Point $D$ is the orthogonal projection of $M$ on $AB$. Circle $\omega$ is inscribed in triangle $ACD$ and tangent to segments $AD$ and $AC$ at $K$ and $L$ respectively. Lines tangent to $\omega$ which pass through $M$ cross line $KL$ at $X$ and $Y$, where points $X$, $K$, $L$ and $Y$ lie on $KL$ in this specific order. Prove that points $M$, $D$, $X$ and $Y$ are concyclic.

2018 Polish Finals P1
An acute triangle $ABC$ in which $AB<AC$ is given. The bisector of $\angle BAC$ crosses $BC$ at $D$. Point $M$ is the midpoint of $BC$. Prove that the line though centers of circles escribed on triangles $ABC$ and $ADM$ is parallel to $AD$.

2018 Polish Finals P5
An acute triangle $ABC$ in which $AB<AC$ is given. Points $E$ and $F$ are feet of its heights from $B$ and $C$, respectively. The line tangent in point $A$ to the circle escribed on $ABC$ crosses $BC$ at $P$. The line parallel to $BC$ that goes through point $A$ crosses $EF$ at $Q$. Prove $PQ$ is perpendicular to the median from $A$ of triangle $ABC$.

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