ELMO 2009- & Shortlist 69p

geometry problems from ELMO and it's Shortlist (SHL), where available
with aops links in the names
some files have solutions

more USA Competitions in appendix: UK USA Canada

1999, 2003, 2009 - 2019

In nonisosceles triangle $ABC$ the excenters of the triangle opposite $B$ and $C$ be $X_B$ and $X_C$, respectively.  Let the external angle bisector of $A$ intersect the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ again at $Q$.  Prove that $QX_B = QB = QC = QX_C$.

Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex equilateral hexagon with sides of length $1$.  Let $R_1$ be the area of the region contained within both $ACE$ and $BDF$, and let $R_2$ be the area of the region within the hexagon outside both triangles.  Prove that: $ \min \{ [ACE], [BDF] \} + R_2 - R_1 \le \frac{3\sqrt{3}}{4}. $

2009 ELMO problem 2
Let $ABC$ be a triangle such that $AB < AC$. Let $P$ lie on a line through $A$ parallel to line $BC$ such that $C$ and $P$ are on the same side of line $AB$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of segment $BC$.  Define $D$ on segment $BC$ such that $\angle BAD = \angle CAM$, and define $T$ on the extension of ray $CB$ beyond $B$ so that $\angle BAT = \angle CAP$.  Given that lines $PC$ and $AD$ intersect at $Q$, that lines $PD$ and $AB$ intersect at $R$, and that $S$ is the midpoint of segment $DT$, prove that if $A$,$P$,$Q$, and $R$ lie on a circle, then $Q$, $R$, and $S$ are collinear.

by David Rush 
2009 ELMO problem 5
Let $ABCDEFG$ be a regular heptagon with center $O$. Let $M$ be the centroid of $\triangle ABD$. Prove that $\cos^2(\angle GOM)$ is rational and determine its value.

by Evan o'Dorney
2010 ELMO Shortlist G1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle. Let $A_1$, $A_2$ be points on $AB$ and $AC$ respectively such that $A_1A_2 \parallel BC$ and the circumcircle of $\triangle AA_1A_2$ is tangent to $BC$ at $A_3$. Define $B_3$, $C_3$ similarly. Prove that $AA_3$, $BB_3$, and $CC_3$ are concurrent.

by Carl Lian
2010 ELMO Shortlist G2
Given a triangle $ABC$, a point $P$ is chosen on side $BC$. Points $M$ and $N$ lie on sides $AB$ and $AC$, respectively, such that $MP \parallel AC$ and $NP \parallel AB$. Point $P$ is reflected across $MN$ to point $Q$. Show that triangle $QMB$ is similar to triangle $CNQ$.

by Brian Hamrick
2010 ELMO Shortlist G3
A circle $\omega$ not passing through any vertex of $\triangle ABC$ intersects each of the segments $AB$, $BC$, $CA$ in 2 distinct points. Prove that the incenter of $\triangle ABC$ lies inside $\omega$.

by Evan O' Dorney 
2010 ELMO Shortlist G4 problem 6
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$, incenter $I$, and $A$-excenter $I_A$. Let the incircle and the $A$-excircle hit $BC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively, and let $M$ be the midpoint of arc $BC$ without $A$. Consider the circle tangent to $BC$ at $D$ and arc $BAC$ at $T$. If $TI$ intersects $\omega$ again at $S$, prove that $SI_A$ and $ME$ meet on $\omega$.

by Amol Aggarwal
2010 ELMO Shortlist G5 problem 1
Determine all (not necessarily finite) sets $S$ of points in the plane such that given any four distinct points in $S$, there is a circle passing through all four or a line passing through some three.

by Carl Lian
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcircle $\Omega$. $X$ and $Y$ are points on $\Omega$ such that $XY$ meets $AB$ and $AC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively. Show that the midpoints of $XY$, $BE$, $CD$, and $DE$ are concyclic.

by Carl Lian 
2011 ELMO Shortlist G1 problem 1
Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Let $E,F,G,H$ be points on segments $AB$, $BC$, $CD$, $DA$, respectively, and let $P$ be the intersection of $EG$ and $FH$. Given that quadrilaterals $HAEP$, $EBFP$, $FCGP$, $GDHP$ all have inscribed circles, prove that $ABCD$ also has an inscribed circle.

by Evan O'Dorney
2011 ELMO Shortlist G2
Let $\omega,\omega_1,\omega_2$ be three mutually tangent circles such that $\omega_1,\omega_2$ are externally tangent at $P$, $\omega_1,\omega$ are internally tangent at $A$, and $\omega,\omega_2$ are internally tangent at $B$. Let $O,O_1,O_2$ be the centers of $\omega,\omega_1,\omega_2$, respectively. Given that $X$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to $AB$, prove that $\angle{O_1XP}=\angle{O_2XP}$.

by David Yang.
2011 ELMO Shortlist G3
Let $ABC$ be a triangle. Draw circles $\omega_A$, $\omega_B$, and $\omega_C$ such that $\omega_A$ is tangent to $AB$ and $AC$, and $\omega_B$ and $\omega_C$ are defined similarly. Let $P_A$ be the insimilicenter of $\omega_B$ and $\omega_C$. Define $P_B$ and $P_C$ similarly. Prove that $AP_A$, $BP_B$, and $CP_C$ are concurrent.

 by Tom Lu 
Prove that for any convex pentagon $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5$, there exists a unique pair of points $\{P,Q\}$ (possibly with $P=Q$) such that $\measuredangle{PA_i A_{i-1}} = \measuredangle{A_{i+1}A_iQ}$ for $1\le i\le 5$, where indices are taken $\pmod5$ and angles are directed $\pmod\pi$.

by Calvin Deng 
2012 ELMO Shortlist G1 problem 1
In acute triangle $ABC$, let $D,E,F$ denote the feet of the altitudes from $A,B,C$, respectively, and let $\omega$ be the circumcircle of $\triangle AEF$. Let $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ be the circles through $D$ tangent to $\omega$ at $E$ and $F$, respectively. Show that $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ meet at a point $P$ on $BC$ other than $D$.

by Ray Li
2012 ELMO Shortlist G2
In triangle $ABC$, $P$ is a point on altitude $AD$. $Q,R$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $P$ to $AB,AC$, and $QP,RP$ meet $BC$ at $S$ and $T$ respectively. the circumcircles of $BQS$ and $CRT$ meet $QR$ at $X,Y$.
a) Prove $SX,TY, AD$ are concurrent at a point $Z$.
b) Prove $Z$ is on $QR$ iff $Z=H$, where $H$ is the orthocenter of $ABC$.

by Ray Li 
2012 ELMO Shortlist G3
$ABC$ is a triangle with incenter $I$. The foot of the perpendicular from $I$ to $BC$ is $D$, and the foot of the perpendicular from $I$ to $AD$ is $P$. Prove that $\angle BPD = \angle DPC$.

by Alex Zhu
2012 ELMO Shortlist G4
Circles $\Omega$ and $\omega$ are internally tangent at point $C$. Chord $AB$ of $\Omega$ is tangent to $\omega$ at $E$, where $E$ is the midpoint of $AB$. Another circle, $\omega_1$ is tangent to $\Omega, \omega,$ and $AB$ at $D,Z,$ and $F$ respectively. Rays $CD$ and $AB$ meet at $P$. If $M$ is the midpoint of major arc $AB$, show that $\tan \angle ZEP = \tfrac{PE}{CM}$.

by Ray Li
2012 ELMO Shortlist G5 problem 5
Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with $AB<AC$, and let $D$ and $E$ be points on side $BC$ such that $BD=CE$ and $D$ lies between $B$ and $E$. Suppose there exists a point $P$ inside $ABC$ such that $PD\parallel AE$ and $\angle PAB=\angle EAC$. Prove that $\angle PBA=\angle PCA$.

by Calvin Deng
2012 ELMO Shortlist G6
In $\triangle ABC$, $H$ is the orthocenter, and $AD,BE$ are arbitrary cevians. Let $\omega_1, \omega_2$ denote the circles with diameters $AD$ and $BE$, respectively. $HD,HE$ meet $\omega_1,\omega_2$ again at $F,G$. $DE$ meets $\omega_1,\omega_2$ again at $P_1,P_2$ respectively. $FG$ meets $\omega_1,\omega_2$ again $Q_1,Q_2$ respectively. $P_1H,Q_1H$ meet $\omega_1$ at $R_1,S_1$ respectively. $P_2H,Q_2H$ meet $\omega_2$ at $R_2,S_2$ respectively. Let $P_1Q_1\cap P_2Q_2 = X$, and $R_1S_1\cap R_2S_2=Y$. Prove that $X,Y,H$ are collinear.

by Ray Li
Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle with circumcenter $O$ such that $AB<AC$, let $Q$ be the intersection of the external bisector of $\angle A$ with $BC$, and let $P$ be a point in the interior of $\triangle ABC$ such that $\triangle BPA$ is similar to $\triangle APC$. Show that $\angle QPA + \angle OQB = 90^{\circ}$.

by Alex Zhu
2013 ELMO Shortlist G1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incenter $I$. Let $U$, $V$ and $W$ be the intersections of the angle bisectors of angles $A$, $B$, and $C$ with the incircle, so that $V$ lies between $B$ and $I$, and similarly with $U$ and $W$. Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be the points of tangency of the incircle of triangle $ABC$ with $BC$, $AC$, and $AB$, respectively.  Let triangle $UVW$ be the  David Yang triangle of $ABC$ and let $XYZ$ be the  Scott Wu triangle  of $ABC$. Prove that the David Yang and Scott Wu triangles of a triangle are congruent if and only if $ABC$ is equilateral.

by Owen Goff
2013 ELMO Shortlist G2
Let $ABC$ be a scalene triangle with circumcircle $\Gamma$, and let $D$,$E$,$F$ be the points where its incircle meets $BC$, $AC$, $AB$ respectively. Let the circumcircles of $\triangle AEF$, $\triangle BFD$, and $\triangle CDE$ meet $\Gamma$ a second time at $X,Y,Z$ respectively. Prove that the perpendiculars from $A,B,C$ to $AX,BY,CZ$ respectively are concurrent.

by Michael Kural 
In $\triangle ABC$, a point $D$ lies on line $BC$.  The circumcircle of $ABD$ meets $AC$ at $F$ (other than $A$), and the circumcircle of $ADC$ meets $AB$ at $E$ (other than $A$).  Prove that as $D$ varies, the circumcircle of $AEF$ always passes through a fixed point other than $A$, and that this point lies on the median from $A$ to $BC$.

by Allen Liu
2013 ELMO Shortlist G4 problem 4
Triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in circle $\omega$.  A circle with chord $BC$ intersects segments $AB$ and $AC$ again at $S$ and $R$, respectively.  Segments $BR$ and $CS$ meet at $L$, and rays $LR$ and $LS$ intersect $\omega$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively.  The internal angle bisector of $\angle BDE$ meets line $ER$ at $K$.  Prove that if $BE = BR$, then $\angle ELK = \tfrac{1}{2} \angle BCD$.

 by Evan Chen
Let $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ be two orthogonal circles, and let the center of $\omega_1$ be $O$. Diameter $AB$ of $\omega_1$ is selected so that $B$ lies strictly inside $\omega_2$.  The two circles tangent to $\omega_2$, passing through $O$ and $A$, touch $\omega_2$ at $F$ and $G$. Prove that $FGOB$ is cyclic.

 by Evan Chen
2013 ELMO Shortlist G6
Let $ABCDEF$ be a non-degenerate cyclic hexagon with no two opposite sides parallel, and define $X=AB\cap DE$, $Y=BC\cap EF$, and $Z=CD\cap FA$. Prove that
$\frac{XY}{XZ}=\frac{BE}{AD}\frac{\sin |\angle{B}-\angle{E}|}{\sin |\angle{A}-\angle{D}|}.$

by Victor Wang 
2013 ELMO Shortlist G7
Let $ABC$ be a triangle inscribed in circle $\omega$, and let the medians from $B$ and $C$ intersect $\omega$ at $D$ and $E$ respectively. Let $O_1$ be the center of the circle through $D$ tangent to $AC$ at $C$, and let $O_2$ be the center of the circle through $E$ tangent to $AB$ at $B$. Prove that $O_1$, $O_2$, and the nine-point center of $ABC$ are collinear.

by Michael Kural
2013 ELMO Shortlist G8
Let $ABC$ be a triangle, and let $D$, $A$, $B$, $E$ be points on line $AB$, in that order, such that $AC=AD$ and $BE=BC$. Let $\omega_1, \omega_2$ be the circumcircles of $\triangle ABC$ and $\triangle CDE$, respectively, which meet at a point $F \neq C$.  If the tangent to $\omega_2$ at $F$ cuts $\omega_1$ again at $G$, and the foot of the altitude from $G$ to $FC$ is $H$, prove that $\angle AGH=\angle BGH$.

by David Stoner
2013 ELMO Shortlist G9
Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in circle $\omega$ whose diagonals meet at $F$.  Lines $AB$ and $CD$ meet at $E$.  Segment $EF$ intersects $\omega$ at $X$.  Lines $BX$ and $CD$ meet at $M$, and lines $CX$ and $AB$ meet at $N$.  Prove that $MN$ and $BC$ concur with the tangent to $\omega$ at $X$.

by Allen Liu
2013 ELMO Shortlist G10
Let $AB=AC$ in $\triangle ABC$, and let $D$ be a point on segment $AB$. The tangent at $D$ to the circumcircle $\omega$ of $BCD$ hits $AC$ at $E$. The other tangent from $E$ to $\omega$ touches it at $F$, and $G=BF \cap CD$, $H=AG \cap BC$. Prove that $BH=2HC$.

by David Stoner
2013 ELMO Shortlist G11
Let $\triangle ABC$ be a nondegenerate isosceles triangle with $AB=AC$, and let $D, E, F$ be the midpoints of $BC, CA, AB$ respectively. $BE$ intersects the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ again at $G$, and $H$ is the midpoint of minor arc $BC$. $CF\cap DG=I, BI\cap AC=J$. Prove that $\angle BJH=\angle ADG$ if and only if $\angle BID=\angle GBC$.

by David Stoner 
Let $ABC$ be a nondegenerate acute triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and let its incircle $\gamma$ touch $AB, AC, BC$ at $X, Y, Z$ respectively. Let $XY$ hit arcs $AB, AC$ of $\omega$ at $M, N$ respectively, and let $P \neq X, Q \neq Y$ be the points on $\gamma$ such that $MP=MX,  NQ=NY$. If $I$ is the center of $\gamma$, prove that $P, I, Q$ are collinear if and only if $\angle BAC=90^\circ$.

by David Stoner
2013 ELMO Shortlist G13
In $\triangle ABC$, $AB<AC$. $D$ and $P$ are the feet of the internal and external angle bisectors of $\angle BAC$, respectively. $M$ is the midpoint of segment $BC$, and $\omega$ is the circumcircle of $\triangle APD$. Suppose $Q$ is on the minor arc $AD$ of $\omega$ such that $MQ$ is tangent to $\omega$. $QB$ meets $\omega$ again at $R$, and the line through $R$ perpendicular to $BC$ meets $PQ$ at $S$.  Prove $SD$ is tangent to the circumcircle of $\triangle QDM$.

by Ray Li 
Let $O$ be a point (in the plane) and $T$ be an infinite set of points such that $|P_1P_2| \le 2012$ for every two distinct points $P_1,P_2\in T$. Let $S(T)$ be the set of points $Q$ in the plane satisfying $|QP| \le 2013$ for at least one point $P\in T$.
Now let $L$ be the set of lines containing exactly one point of $S(T)$. Call a line $\ell_0$ passing through $O$ bad  if there does not exist a line $\ell\in L$ parallel to (or coinciding with) $\ell_0$.
a) Prove that $L$ is nonempty.
b)  Prove that one can assign a line $\ell(i)$ to each positive integer $i$ so that for every bad line $\ell_0$ passing through $O$, there exists a positive integer $n$ with $\ell(n) = \ell_0$.

 by David Yang
2014 ELMO Shortlist G1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with symmedian point $K$. Select a point $A_1$ on line $BC$ such that the lines $AB$, $AC$, $A_1K$ and $BC$ are the sides of a cyclic quadrilateral.  Define $B_1$ and $C_1$ similarly.  Prove that $A_1$, $B_1$, and $C_1$ are collinear.

by Sammy Luo 
2014 ELMO Shortlist G2
$ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in the circle $\omega$. Let $AB \cap CD = E$, $AD \cap BC = F$. Let $\omega_1, \omega_2$ be the circumcircles of $AEF, CEF$, respectively. Let $\omega \cap \omega_1 = G$, $\omega \cap \omega_2 = H$. Show that $AC, BD, GH$ are concurrent.

by Yang Liu
2014 ELMO Shortlist G3
Let $A_1A_2A_3 \cdots A_{2013}$ be a cyclic $2013$-gon. Prove that for every point $P$ not the circumcenter of the $2013$-gon, there exists a point $Q\neq P$ such that $\frac{A_iP}{A_iQ}$ is constant for $i \in \{1, 2, 3, \cdots, 2013\}$.

by Robin Park
2014 ELMO Shortlist G4
Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral inscribed in circle $\omega$. Define $E = AA \cap CD$, $F = AA \cap BC$, $G = BE \cap \omega$, $H = BE \cap AD$, $I = DF \cap \omega$, and $J = DF \cap AB$. Prove that $GI$, $HJ$, and the $B$-symmedian are concurrent.

by Robin Park
2014 ELMO Shortlist G5 problem 5
Let $P$ be a point in the interior of an acute triangle $ABC$, and let $Q$ be its isogonal conjugate.  Denote by $\omega_P$ and $\omega_Q$ the circumcircles of triangles $BPC$ and $BQC$, respectively.  Suppose the circle with diameter $\overline{AP}$ intersects $\omega_P$ again at $M$, and line $AM$ intersects $\omega_P$ again at $X$.  Similarly, suppose the circle with diameter $\overline{AQ}$ intersects $\omega_Q$ again at $N$, and line $AN$ intersects $\omega_Q$ again at $Y$. Prove that lines $MN$ and $XY$ are parallel.

(Here, the points $P$ and $Q$ are isogonal conjugates  with respect to $\triangle ABC$ if the internal angle bisectors of $\angle BAC$, $\angle CBA$, and $\angle ACB$ also bisect the angles $\angle PAQ$, $\angle PBQ$, and $\angle PCQ$, respectively.  For example, the orthocenter is the isogonal conjugate of the circumcenter.)

by Sammy Luo
2014 ELMO Shortlist G6
Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral with center $O$. Suppose the circumcircles of triangles $AOB$ and $COD$ meet again at $G$, while the circumcircles of triangles $AOD$ and $BOC$ meet again at $H$. Let $\omega_1$ denote the circle passing through $G$ as well as the feet of the perpendiculars from $G$ to $AB$ and $CD$. Define $\omega_2$ analogously as the circle passing through $H$ and the feet of the perpendiculars from $H$ to $BC$ and $DA$. Show that the midpoint of $GH$ lies on the radical axis of $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$.

by Yang Liu
2014 ELMO Shortlist G7
Let $ABC$ be a triangle inscribed in circle $\omega$ with center $O$; let $\omega_A$ be its $A$-mixtilinear incircle, $\omega_B$ be its $B$-mixtilinear incircle, $\omega_C$ be its $C$-mixtilinear incircle, and $X$ be the radical center of $\omega_A, \omega_B, \omega_C$. Let $A'$, $B'$, $C'$ be the points at which $\omega_A$, $\omega_B$, $\omega_C$ are tangent to $\omega$.  Prove that $AA'$, $BB'$, $CC'$ and $OX$ are concurrent.

by Robin Park
2014 ELMO Shortlist G8
In triangle $ABC$ with incenter $I$ and circumcenter $O$, let $A',B',C'$ be the points of tangency of its circumcircle with its $A,B,C$-mixtilinear circles, respectively.  Let $\omega_A$ be the circle through $A'$ that is tangent to $AI$ at $I$, and define $\omega_B, \omega_C$ similarly. Prove that $\omega_A,\omega_B,\omega_C$ have a common point $X$ other than $I$, and that $\angle AXO = \angle OXA'$.

by Sammy Luo
2014 ELMO Shortlist G9
Let $P$ be a point inside a triangle $ABC$ such that $\angle PAC= \angle PCB$. Let the projections of $P$ onto $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$ be $X,Y,Z$ respectively. Let $O$ be the circumcenter of $\triangle XYZ$, $H$ be the foot of the altitude from $B$ to $AC$, $N$ be the midpoint of $AC$, and $T$ be the point such that $TYPO$ is a parallelogram.  Show that $\triangle THN$ is similar to $\triangle PBC$.

by Sammy Luo 

2014 ELMO Shortlist G10
We are given triangles $ABC$ and $DEF$ such that $D\in BC, E\in CA, F\in AB$, $AD\perp EF, BE\perp FD, CF\perp DE$.  Let the circumcenter of $DEF$ be $O$, and let the circumcircle of $DEF$ intersect $BC,CA,AB$ again at $R,S,T$ respectively. Prove that the perpendiculars to $BC,CA,AB$ through $D,E,F$ respectively intersect at a point $X$, and the lines $AR,BS,CT$ intersect at a point $Y$, such that $O,X,Y$ are collinear.

by Sammy Luo 
2014 ELMO Shortlist G11
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcenter $O$. Let $P$ be a point inside $ABC$, so let the points $D, E, F$ be on $BC, AC, AB$ respectively so that the Miquel point of $DEF$ with respect to $ABC$ is $P$. Let the reflections of $D, E, F$ over the midpoints of the sides that they lie on be $R, S, T$. Let the Miquel point of $RST$ with respect to the triangle $ABC$ be $Q$. Show that $OP = OQ$.

by Yang Liu 
2014 ELMO Shortlist G12
Let $AB=AC$ in $\triangle ABC$, and let $D$ be a point on segment $AB$. The tangent at $D$ to the circumcircle $\omega$ of $BCD$ hits $AC$ at $E$. The other tangent from $E$ to $\omega$ touches it at $F$, and $G=BF \cap CD$, $H=AG \cap BC$. Prove that $BH=2HC$.

by David Stoner 
2014 ELMO Shortlist G13
Let $ABC$ be a nondegenerate acute triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and let its incircle $\gamma$ touch $AB, AC, BC$ at $X, Y, Z$ respectively. Let $XY$ hit arcs $AB, AC$ of $\omega$ at $M, N$ respectively, and let $P \neq X, Q \neq Y$ be the points on $\gamma$ such that $MP=MX,  NQ=NY$. If $I$ is the center of $\gamma$, prove that $P, I, Q$ are collinear if and only if $\angle BAC=90^\circ$.

by David Stoner 
2015 ELMO Shortlist G3 problem 3
Let $\omega$ be a circle and $C$ a point outside it; distinct points $A$ and $B$ are selected on $\omega$ so that $\overline{CA}$ and $\overline{CB}$ are tangent to $\omega$.  Let $X$ be the reflection of $A$ across the point $B$, and denote by $\gamma$ the circumcircle of triangle $BXC$.  Suppose $\gamma$ and $\omega$ meet at $D \neq B$ and line $CD$ intersects $\omega$ at $E \neq D$.  Prove that line $EX$ is tangent to the circle $\gamma$.

by David Stoner
2016 ELMO problem 2
Oscar is drawing diagrams with trash can lids and sticks. He draws a triangle $ABC$ and a point $D$ such that $DB$ and $DC$ are tangent to the circumcircle of $ABC$. Let $B'$ be the reflection of $B$ over $AC$ and $C'$ be the reflection of $C$ over $AB$. If $O$ is the circumcenter of $DB'C'$, help Oscar prove that $AO$ is perpendicular to $BC$.

by James Lin 
Elmo is now learning olympiad geometry. In triangle $ABC$ with $AB\neq AC$, let its incircle be tangent to sides $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$ at $D$, $E$, and $F$, respectively. The internal angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects lines $DE$ and $DF$ at $X$ and $Y$, respectively. Let $S$ and $T$ be distinct points on side $BC$ such that $\angle XSY=\angle XTY=90^\circ$. Finally, let $\gamma$ be the circumcircle of $\triangle AST$.
a) Help Elmo show that $\gamma$ is tangent to the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$.
b) Help Elmo show that $\gamma$ is tangent to the incircle of $\triangle ABC$.

 by James Lin 
2017 ELMO Shortlist G1 problem 2
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with orthocenter $H,$ and let $M$ be the midpoint of $\overline{BC}.$ Suppose that $P$ and $Q$ are distinct points on the circle with diameter $\overline{AH},$ different from $A,$ such that $M$ lies on line $PQ.$ Prove that the orthocenter of $\triangle APQ$ lies on the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC.$

by Michael Ren 
Let $ABC$ be a scalene triangle with $\angle A = 60^{\circ}$. Let $E$ and $F$ be the feet of the angle bisectors of $\angle ABC$ and $\angle ACB$, respectively, and let $I$ be the incenter of $\triangle ABC$. Let $P,Q$ be distinct points such that $\triangle PEF$ and $\triangle QEF$ are equilateral. If $O$ is the circumcenter of of $\triangle APQ$, show that $\overline{OI}\perp \overline{BC}$.

by Vincent Huang
2017 ELMO Shortlist G3
Call the ordered pair of distinct circles $(\omega, \gamma)$ scribable if there exists a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and incircle $\gamma$. Prove that among $n$ distinct circles there are at most $(n/2)^2$ scribable pairs.

by Daniel Liu
Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with incenter $I$ and circumcircle $\omega$. Suppose a circle $\omega_B$ is tangent to $BA,BC$, and internally tangent to $\omega$ at $B_1$, while a circle $\omega_C$ is tangent to $CA, CB$, and internally tangent to $\omega$ at $C_1$. If $B_2, C_2$ are the points opposite to $B,C$ on $\omega$, respectively, and $X$ denotes the intersection of $B_1C_2, B_2C_1$, prove that $XA=XI$.

 by Vincent Huang & Nathan Weckwerth
2018 ELMO Shortlist G1
Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with orthocenter $H$, and let $P$ be a point on the nine-point circle of $ABC$. Lines $BH, CH$ meet the opposite sides $AC, AB$ at $E, F$, respectively. Suppose that the circumcircles $(EHP), (FHP)$ intersect lines $CH, BH$ a second time at $Q,R$, respectively. Show that as $P$ varies along the nine-point circle of $ABC$, the line $QR$ passes through a fixed point.

by Brandon Wang 
2018 ELMO Shortlist G2 problem 4
Let $ABC$ be a scalene triangle with orthocenter $H$ and circumcenter $O$. Let $P$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AH}$ and let $T$ be on line $BC$ with $\angle TAO=90^{\circ}$. Let $X$ be the foot of the altitude from $O$ onto line $PT$. Prove that the midpoint of $\overline{PX}$ lies on the nine-point circle* of $\triangle ABC$.

*The nine-point circle of $\triangle ABC$ is the unique circle passing through the following nine points: the midpoint of the sides, the feet of the altitudes, and the midpoints of $\overline{AH}$, $\overline{BH}$, and $\overline{CH}$.

by Zack Chroman 
Let $A$ be a point in the plane, and $\ell$ a line not passing through $A$. Evan does not have a straightedge, but instead has a special compass which has the ability to draw a circle through three distinct noncollinear points. (The center of the circle is not  marked in this process.) Additionally, Evan can mark the intersections between two objects drawn, and can mark an arbitrary point on a given object or on the plane.
i) Can Evan construct* the reflection of $A$ over $\ell$?
ii) Can Evan construct the foot of the altitude from $A$ to $\ell$?

*To construct a point, Evan must have an algorithm which marks the point in finitely many steps.

 by Zack Chroman 
2018 ELMO Shortlist G4
Let $ABCDEF$ be a hexagon inscribed in a circle $\Omega$ such that triangles $ACE$ and $BDF$ have the same orthocenter. Suppose that segments $BD$ and $DF$ intersect $CE$ at $X$ and $Y$, respectively. Show that there is a point common to $\Omega$, the circumcircle of $DXY$, and the line through $A$ perpendicular to $CE$.

by Michael Ren & Vincent Huang 
Let scalene triangle $ABC$ have altitudes $AD, BE, CF$ and circumcenter $O$. The circumcircles of $\triangle ABC$ and $\triangle ADO$ meet at $P \ne A$. The circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ meets lines $PE$ at $X \ne P$ and $PF$ at $Y \ne P$. Prove that $XY \parallel BC$.

by Daniel Hu


Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with orthocenter $H$ and circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $BH$ intersect $AC$ at $E$, and let $CH$ intersect $AB$ at $F$. Let $AH$ intersect $\Gamma$ again at $P \neq A$. Let $PE$ intersect $\Gamma$ again at $Q \neq P$. Prove that $BQ$ bisects segment $\overline{EF}$.

by Luke Robitaille
2019 ELMO Shortlist G2 problem 4
Carl is given three distinct non-parallel lines $\ell_1, \ell_2, \ell_3$ and a circle $\omega$ in the plane. In addition to a normal straightedge, Carl has a special straightedge which, given a line $\ell$ and a point $P$, constructs a new line passing through $P$ parallel to $\ell$. (Carl does not have a compass.) Show that Carl can construct a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ whose sides are parallel to $\ell_1,\ell_2,\ell_3$ in some order.

by Vincent Huang
2019 ELMO Shortlist G3
Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle with incenter $I$ and circumcenter $O$. The incircle touches sides $BC,CA,$ and $AB$ at $D,E,$ and $F$ respectively, and $A'$ is the reflection of $A$ over $O$. The circumcircles of $ABC$ and $A'EF$ meet at $G$, and the circumcircles of $AMG$ and $A'EF$ meet at a point $H\neq G$, where $M$ is the midpoint of $EF$. Prove that if $GH$ and $EF$ meet at $T$, then $DT\perp EF$.

by Ankit Bisain
2019 ELMO Shortlist G4
Let triangle $ABC$ have altitudes $BE$ and $CF$ which meet at $H$. The reflection of $A$ over $BC$ is $A'$. Let $(ABC)$ meet $(AA'E)$ at $P$ and $(AA'F)$ at $Q$. Let $BC$ meet $PQ$ at $R$. Prove that $EF \parallel HR$.

by Daniel Hu
Given a triangle $ABC$ for which $\angle BAC \neq 90^{\circ}$, let $B_1, C_1$ be variable points on $AB,AC$, respectively. Let $B_2,C_2$ be the points on line $BC$ such that a spiral similarity centered at $A$ maps $B_1C_1$ to $C_2B_2$. Denote the circumcircle of $AB_1C_1$ by $\omega$. Show that if $B_1B_2$ and $C_1C_2$ concur on $\omega$ at a point distinct from $B_1$ and $C_1$, then $\omega$ passes through a fixed point other than $A$.

by Max Jiang
2019 ELMO Shortlist G6
Let $ABC$ be an acute scalene triangle and let $P$ be a point in the plane. For any point $Q\neq A,B,C$, define $T_A$ to be the unique point such that $\triangle T_ABP \sim \triangle T_AQC$ and $\triangle T_ABP, \triangle T_AQC$ are oriented in the same direction (clockwise or counterclockwise). Similarly define $T_B, T_C$.
a) Find all $P$ such that there exists a point $Q$ with $T_A,T_B,T_C$ all lying on the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$. Call such a pair $(P,Q)$ a tasty pair with respect to $\triangle ABC$.
b) Keeping the notations from a), determine if there exists a tasty pair which is also tasty with respect to $\triangle T_AT_BT_C$.

by Vincent Huang

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