USAJMO 2010-19 19p

geometry problems from United States of America Junior Mathematical Olympiads (a.k.a USAJMO)
with aops links in the names

USAMO geometry problems with aops links
all USAJMO 2014-2019 problems witη solutions 
in a pdf by Evan Chen
more USA Competitions in appendix: UK USA Canada

2010 - 2019

[to the total problem sum given, 
the USAMO problems are not double counted]

2010 USAJMO problem 3 [also USAMO #1]
Let $AXYZB$ be a convex pentagon inscribed in a semicircle of diameter $AB$. Denote by
$P$, $Q$, $R$, $S$ the feet of the perpendiculars from $Y$ onto lines $AX$, $BX$, $AZ$, $BZ$, respectively. Prove that the acute angle formed by lines $PQ$ and $RS$ is half the size of $\angle XOZ$, where $O$ is the midpoint of segment $AB$.

2010 USAJMO problem 6 [also USAMO #4]
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle A = 90^{\circ}$. Points $D$ and $E$ lie on sides $AC$ and $AB$, respectively, such that $\angle ABD = \angle DBC$ and $\angle ACE = \angle ECB$. Segments $BD$ and $CE$ meet at $I$. Determine whether or not it is possible for segments $AB$, $AC$, $BI$, $ID$, $CI$, $IE$ to all have integer lengths.

For a point $P = (a,a^2)$ in the coordinate plane, let $l(P)$ denote the line passing through $P$ with slope $2a$. Consider the set of triangles with vertices of the form $P_1 = (a_1, a_1^2), P_2 = (a_2, a_2^2), P_3 = (a_3, a_3^2)$, such that the intersection of the lines $l(P_1), l(P_2), l(P_3)$ form an equilateral triangle $\triangle$. Find the locus of the center of $\triangle$ as $P_1P_2P_3$ ranges over all such triangles.

Points $A,B,C,D,E$ lie on a circle $\omega$ and point $P$ lies outside the circle. The given points are such that (i) lines $PB$ and $PD$ are tangent to $\omega$, (ii) $P, A, C$ are collinear, and (iii) $DE \parallel AC$. Prove that $BE$ bisects $AC$.

Given a triangle $ABC$, let $P$ and $Q$ be points on segments $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$, respectively, such that $AP=AQ$. Let $S$ and $R$ be distinct points on segment $\overline{BC}$ such that $S$ lies between $B$ and $R$, $\angle BPS=\angle PRS$, and $\angle CQR=\angle QSR$. Prove that $P,Q,R,S$ are concyclic (in other words, these four points lie on a circle).

2012 USAJMO problem 6 (also USAMO #5)
Let $P$ be a point in the plane of $\triangle ABC$, and $\gamma$ a line passing through $P$. Let $A', B', C'$ be the points where the reflections of lines $PA, PB, PC$ with respect to $\gamma$ intersect lines $BC, AC, AB$ respectively. Prove that $A', B', C'$ are collinear.

2013 USAJMO problem 3 (also USAMO #1)
In triangle $ABC$, points $P$, $Q$, $R$ lie on sides $BC$, $CA$, $AB$ respectively. Let $\omega_A$, $\omega_B$, $\omega_C$ denote the circumcircles of triangles $AQR$, $BRP$, $CPQ$, respectively. Given the fact that segment $AP$ intersects $\omega_A$, $\omega_B$, $\omega_C$ again at $X$, $Y$, $Z$, respectively, prove that $YX/XZ=BP/PC$.

Quadrilateral $XABY$ is inscribed in the semicircle $\omega$ with diameter $XY$. Segments $AY$ and $BX$ meet at $P$. Point $Z$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $P$ to line $XY$. Point $C$ lies on $\omega$ such that line $XC$ is perpendicular to line $AZ$. Let $Q$ be the intersection of segments $AY$ and $XC$. Prove that \[\dfrac{BY}{XP}+\dfrac{CY}{XQ}=\dfrac{AY}{AX}.\]

Let $\triangle{ABC}$ be a non-equilateral, acute triangle with $\angle A=60^\circ$, and let $O$ and $H$ denote the circumcenter and orthocenter of $\triangle{ABC}$, respectively.
(a) Prove that line $OH$ intersects both segments $AB$ and $AC$.
(b) Line $OH$ intersects segments $AB$ and $AC$ at $P$ and $Q$, respectively. Denote by $s$ and $t$ the respective areas of triangle $APQ$ and quadrilateral $BPQC$. Determine the range of possible values for $s/t$.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incenter $I$, incircle $\gamma$ and circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $M,N,P$ be the midpoints of sides $\overline{BC}$, $\overline{CA}$, $\overline{AB}$ and let $E,F$ be the tangency points of $\gamma$ with $\overline{CA}$ and $\overline{AB}$, respectively. Let $U,V$ be the intersections of line $EF$ with line $MN$ and line $MP$, respectively, and let $X$ be the midpoint of arc $BAC$ of $\Gamma$.
(a) Prove that $I$ lies on ray $CV$.
(b) Prove that line $XI$ bisects $\overline{UV}$.

2015 USAJMO problem 3 [also USAMO #2]
Quadrilateral $APBQ$ is inscribed in circle $\omega$ with $\angle P = \angle Q = 90^{\circ}$ and $AP = AQ < BP$. Let $X$ be a variable point on segment $\overline{PQ}$. Line $AX$ meets $\omega$ again at $S$ (other than $A$). Point $T$ lies on arc $AQB$ of $\omega$ such that $\overline{XT}$ is perpendicular to $\overline{AX}$. Let $M$ denote the midpoint of chord $\overline{ST}$. As $X$ varies on segment $\overline{PQ}$, show that $M$ moves along a circle.

Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral. Prove that there exists a point $X$ on segment $\overline{BD}$ such that $\angle BAC=\angle XAD$ and $\angle BCA=\angle XCD$ if and only if there exists a point $Y$ on segment $\overline{AC}$ such that $\angle CBD=\angle YBA$ and $\angle CDB=\angle YDA$.

The isosceles triangle $\triangle ABC$, with $AB=AC$, is inscribed in the circle $\omega$. Let $P$ be a variable point on the arc $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$ that does not contain $A$, and let $I_B$ and $I_C$ denote the incenters of triangles $\triangle ABP$ and $\triangle ACP$, respectively.
Prove that as $P$ varies, the circumcircle of triangle $\triangle PI_BI_C$ passes through a fixed point.

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle, with $O$ as its circumcenter. Point $H$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ to line $\overleftrightarrow{BC}$, and points $P$ and $Q$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $H$ to the lines $\overleftrightarrow{AB}$ and $\overleftrightarrow{AC}$, respectively. Given that $AH^2=2\cdot AO^2,$ prove that the points $O,P,$ and $Q$ are collinear.

Let $ABC$ be an equilateral triangle, and point $P$ on its circumcircle. Let $PA$ and $BC$ intersect at $D$, $PB$ and $AC$ intersect at $E$, and $PC$ and $AB$ intersect at $F$. Prove that the area of $\triangle DEF$ is twice the area of $\triangle ABC$.

Proposed by Titu Andreescu, Luis Gonzales, Cosmin Pohoata

Let $O$ and $H$ be the circumcenter and the orthocenter of an acute triangle $ABC$. Points $M$ and $D$ lie on side $BC$ such that $BM=CM$ and $\angle BAD = \angle CAD$. Ray $MO$ intersects the circumcircle of triangle $BHC$ in point $N$. Prove that $\angle ADO = \angle HAN$.

Let $ABCD$ be a quadrilateral inscribed in circle $\omega$ with $\overline{AC} \perp \overline{BD}$. Let $E$ and $F$ be the reflections of $D$ over lines $BA$ and $BC$, respectively, and let $P$ be the intersection of lines $BD$ and $EF$. Suppose that the circumcircle of $\triangle EPD$ meets $\omega$ at $D$ and $Q$, and the circumcircle of $\triangle FPD$ meets $\omega$ at $D$ and $R$. Show that $EQ = FR$.

2019 USAJMO problem 3 (also USAMO #2)
Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral satisfying $AD^2 + BC^2 = AB^2$. The diagonals of $ABCD$ intersect at $E$. Let $P$ be a point on side $\overline{AB}$ satisfying $\angle APD = \angle BPC$. Show that line $PE$ bisects $\overline{CD}$.

Proposed by Ankan Bhattacharya

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle ABC$ obtuse. The $A$-excircle is a circle in the exterior of $\triangle ABC$ that is tangent to side $\overline{BC}$ of the triangle and tangent to the extensions of the other two sides. Let $E$, $F$ be the feet of the altitudes from $B$ and $C$ to lines $AC$ and $AB$, respectively. Can line $EF$ be tangent to the $A$-excircle?

Proposed by Ankan Bhattacharya, Zack Chroman, and Anant Mudgal

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