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Hong Kong TST 2016-19 21p

geometry problems from Team Selection Tests (TST) from Hong Kong
with aops links in the names

(only those not in IMO Shortlist)

2016 - 2019 

2016 Hong Kong TST 1.3
Let $ABC$ be a triangle such that $AB \neq AC$. The incircle with centre $I$ touches $BC$ at $D$. Line $AI$ intersects the circumcircle $\Gamma$ of $ABC$ at $M$, and $DM$ again meets $\Gamma$ at $P$. Find $\angle API$

2016 Hong Kong TST 1.5
Let $ABCD$ be inscribed in a circle with center $O$. Let $E$ be the intersection of $AC$ and $BD$. $M$ and $N$ are the midpoints of the arcs $AB$ and $CD$ respectively (the arcs not containing any other vertices). Let $P$ be the intersection point of $EO$ and $MN$. Suppose $BC=5$, $AC=11$, $BD=12$, and $AD=10$. Find $\frac{MN}{NP}$

Let $\Gamma$ be a circle and $AB$ be a diameter. Let $l$ be a line outside the circle, and is perpendicular to $AB$. Let $X$, $Y$ be two points on $l$. If $X'$, $Y'$ are two points on  $l$ such that $AX$, $BX'$ intersect on $\Gamma$ and such that $AY$, $BY'$ intersect on $\Gamma$. Prove that the circumcircles of triangles $AXY$ and $AX'Y'$ intersect at a point on $\Gamma$ other than $A$, or the three circles are tangent at $A$.

2016 Hong Kong TST 3.2
Suppose that $I$ is the incenter of triangle $ABC$. The perpendicular to line $AI$ from point $I$ intersects sides $AC$ and $AB$ at points $B'$ and $C'$ respectively. Points $B_1$ and $C_1$ are placed on half lines $BC$ and $CB$ respectively, in such a way that $AB=BB_1$ and $AC=CC_1$. If $T$ is the second intersection point of the circumcircles of triangles $AB_1C'$ and $AC_1B'$, prove that the circumcenter of triangle $ATI$ lies on the line $BC$

2016 Hong Kong TST 4.1
Let $O$ be the circumcenter of a triangle $ABC$, and let $l$ be the line going through the midpoint of the side $BC$ and is perpendicular to the bisector of $\angle BAC$. Determine the value of $\angle BAC$ if the line $l$ goes through the midpoint of the line segment $AO$.

2017 Hong Kong TST 1.1
In $\triangle ABC$, let $AD$ be the angle bisector of $\angle BAC$, with $D$ on $BC$. The perpendicular from $B$ to $AD$ intersects the circumcircle of $\triangle ABD$ at $B$ and $E$. Prove that $E$, $A$ and the circumcenter $O$ of $\triangle ABC$ are collinear.

2017 Hong Kong TST 2.2
Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex hexagon such that $\angle ACE = \angle BDF$ and $\angle BCA = \angle EDF$. Let $A_1=AC\cap FB$, $B_1=BD\cap AC$, $C_1=CE\cap BD$, $D_1=DF\cap CE$, $E_1=EA\cap DF$, and $F_1=FB\cap EA$. Suppose $B_1, C_1, D_1, F_1$ lie on the same circle $\Gamma$. The circumcircles of $\triangle BB_1F_1$ and $ED_1F_1$ meet at $F_1$ and $P$. The line $F_1P$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $Q$. Prove that $B_1D_1$ and $QC_1$ are parrallel. (Here, we use $l_1\cap l_2$ to denote the intersection point of lines $l_1$ and $l_2$)

2017 Hong Kong TST 3.1
a) Do there exist 5 circles in the plane such that each circle passes through exactly 3 centers of other circles?
b) Do there exist 6 circles in the plane such that each circle passes through exactly 3 centers of other circles?

2017 Hong Kong TST 4.2
Two circles $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$, centered at $O_1$ and $O_2$, respectively, meet at points $A$ and $B$. A line through $B$ intersects $\omega_1$ again at $C$ and $\omega_2$ again at $D$. The tangents to $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ at $C$ and $D$, respectively, meet at $E$, and the line $AE$ intersects the circle $\omega$ through $AO_1O_2$ at $F$. Prove that the length of segment $EF$ is equal to the diameter of $\omega$.

2018 Hong Kong TST 1.6
A triangle $ABC$ has its orthocentre $H$ distinct from its vertices and from the circumcenter $O$ of $\triangle ABC$. Denote by $M, N$ and $P$ respectively the circumcenters of triangles $HBC, HCA$ and $HAB$. Show that the lines $AM, BN, CP$ and $OH$ are concurrent.

2018 Hong Kong TST 2.1
Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB=AC$. A circle $\Gamma$ lies outside triangle $ABC$ and is tangent to line $AC$ at $C$. Point $D$ lies on $\Gamma$ such that the circumcircle of triangle $ABD$ is internally tangent to $\Gamma$. Segment $AD$ meets $\Gamma$ secondly at $E$. Prove that $BE$ is tangent to $\Gamma$

In triangle $ABC$ with incentre $I$, let $M_A,M_B$ and $M_C$ by the midpoints of $BC, CA$ and $AB$ respectively, and $H_A,H_B$ and $H_C$ be the feet of the altitudes from $A,B$ and $C$ to the respective sides. Denote by $\ell_b$ the line being tangent tot he circumcircle of triangle $ABC$ and passing through $B$, and denote by $\ell_b'$ the reflection of $\ell_b$ in $BI$. Let $P_B$ by the intersection of $M_AM_C$ and $\ell_b$, and let $Q_B$ be the intersection of $H_AH_C$ and $\ell_b'$. Defined $\ell_c,\ell_c',P_C,Q_C$ analogously. If $R$ is the intersection of $P_BQ_B$ and $P_CQ_C$, prove that $RB=RC$.

2018 Hong Kong TST 3.2
Given triangle $ABC$, let $D$ be an inner point of segment $BC$. Let $P$ and $Q$ be distinct inner points of the segment $AD$. Let $K=BP\cap AC, L=CP\cap AB, E=BQ\cap AC, F=CQ\cap AB$. Given that $KL\parallel EF$, find all possible values of the ratio $BD:DC$.

2018 Hong Kong TST 4.1
The altitudes $AD$ and $BE$ of acute triangle $ABC$ intersect at $H$. Let $F$ be the intersection of $AB$ and a line that is parallel to the side $BC$ and goes through the circumcentre of $ABC$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $AH$. Prove that $\angle CMF=90^\circ$

2019 Hong Kong TST 1.2
A circle is circumscribed around an isosceles triangle whose two base angles are equal to $x^{\circ}$. Two points are chosen independently and randomly on the circle, and a chord is drawn between them. The probability that the chord intersects the triangle is $\frac{14}{25}.$ Find the sum of the largest and smallest possible value of $x$.

2019 Hong Kong TST 1.5
Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle such that $\angle{ACB} = 45^{\circ}$. Let $G$ be the point of intersection of the three medians and let $O$ be the circumcentre. Suppose $OG=1$ and $OG \parallel BC$. Determine the length of the segment $BC$.

2019 Hong Kong TST 2.3
Let $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ be two circles with different radii, with $\Gamma_1$ the smaller one. The two circles meet at distinct points $A$ and $B$. $C$ and $D$ are two points on the circles $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$, respectively, and such that $A$ is the midpoint of $CD$. $CB$ is extended to meet $\Gamma_2$ at $F$, while $DB$ is extended to meet $\Gamma_1$ at $E$. The perpendicular bisector of $CD$ and the perpendicular bisector of $EF$ meet at $P$.
(a) Prove that $\angle{EPF} = 2\angle{CAE}$.
(b) Prove that $AP^2 = CA^2 + PE^2$.

2020 Hong Kong TST 1.3
Let D be an arbitrary point inside $\Delta ABC$. Let $\Gamma$ be the circumcircle of $\Delta BCD$. The external angle bisector of $\angle ABC$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $E$. The external angle bisector of $\angle ACB$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $F$. The line $EF$ meets the extension of $AB$ and $AC$ at $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Prove that the circumcircles of $\Delta BFP$ and $\Delta CEQ$ always pass through the same fixed point regardless of the position of $D$. (Assume all the labelled points are distinct.)

2020 Hong Kong TST 1.5
In $\Delta ABC$, let $D$ be a point on side $BC$. Suppose the incircle $\omega_1$ of $\Delta ABD$ touches sides $AB$ and $AD$ at $E,F$ respectively, and the incircle $\omega_2$ of $\Delta ACD$ touches sides $AD$ and $AC$ at $F,G$ respectively. Suppose the segment $EG$ intersects $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ again at $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Show that line $AD$, tangent of $\omega_1$ at $P$ and tangent of $\omega_2$ at $Q$ are concurrent.

2020 Hong Kong TST 2.1
Let $\Delta ABC$ be an acute triangle with incenter $I$ and orthocenter $H$. $AI$ meets the circumcircle of $\Delta ABC$ again at $M$. Suppose the length $IM$ is exactly the circumradius of $\Delta ABC$. Show that $AH\geq AI$.

2020 Hong Kong TST 2.3
Two circles $\Gamma$ and $\Omega$ intersect at two distinct points $A$ and $B$. Let $P$ be a point on $\Gamma$. The tangent at $P$ to $\Gamma$ meets $\Omega$ at the points $C$ and $D$, where $D$ lies between $P$ and $C$, and $ABCD$ is a convex quadrilateral. The lines $CA$ and $CB$ meet $\Gamma$ again at $E$ and $F$ respectively. The lines $DA$ and $DB$ meet $\Gamma$ again at $S$ and $T$ respectively. Suppose the points $P,E,S,F,B,T,A$ lie on $\Gamma$ in this order. Prove that $PC,ET,SF$ are parallel.


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