geometry problems from Brazilian Mathematical Olympiads

with aops links in the names

1979 Brazilian P3

The vertex $C$ of the triangle $ABC$ is allowed to vary along a line parallel to $AB$. Find the locus of the orthocenter.

(i) $ABCD$ is a square with side $1$. $M $ is the midpoint of $AB$, and $N$ is the midpoint of $BC$. The lines $CM$ and $DN$ meet at $I$. Find the area of the triangle $CIN$.

(ii) The midpoints of the sides $AB, BC, CD, DA$ of the parallelogram $ABCD$ are $M, N, P, Q$ respectively. Each midpoint is joined to the two vertices not on its side. Show that the area outside the resulting $8$-pointed star is $2 / 5$ the area of the parallelogram.

(iii) $ABC$ is a triangle with $CA = CB$ and centroid G. Show that the area of $AGB$ is $1 / 3 $ of the area of $ABC$.

(iv) Is (ii) true for all convex quadrilaterals $ABCD$?

1980 Brazilian P3

Show that, among all triangles whose vertices are at distances $3,5,7$ respectively from a given point $P$, the ones with largest area have $P$ as orthocenter.

(You can suppose, without demonstration, the existence of a triangle with maximal area in this question.)

1988 Brazilian P4

1990 Brazilian P3

Each face of a tetrahedron is a triangle with sides $a, b,$c and the tetrahedon has circumradius 1. Find $a^2 + b^2 + c^2$.

1990 Brazilian P4

$ABCD$ is a quadrilateral, $E,F,G,H$ are midpoints of $AB,BC,CD,DA$. Find the point P such that $area (PHAE) = area (PEBF) = area (PFCG) = area (PGDH)$.

2000 Brazilian P1

A rectangular piece of paper has top edge $AD$. A line $L$ from $A$ to the bottom edge makes an angle $x$ with the line $AD$. We want to trisect $x$. We take $B$ and $C$ on the vertical ege through $A$ such that $AB = BC$. We then fold the paper so that $C$ goes to a point $C'$ on the line $L$ and $A$ goes to a point $A'$ on the horizontal line through $B$. The fold takes $B$ to $B'$. Show that $AA'$ and $AB'$ are the required trisectors.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. The internal bisector of $\angle B$ meets $AC$ in $P$ and $I$ is the incenter of $ABC$. Prove that if $AP+AB = CB$, then $API$ is an isosceles triangle.

2007 Brazilian P5

Let $ ABCD$ be a convex quadrangle, $ P$ the intersection of lines $ AB$ and $ CD$, $ Q$ the intersection of lines $ AD$ and $ BC$ and $ O$ the intersection of diagonals $ AC$ and $ BD$. Show that if $ \angle POQ = 90^\circ$ then $ PO$ is the bisector of $ \angle AOD$ and $ OQ$ is the bisector of $ \angle AOB$.

2008 Brazilian P4

Let $ ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral and $ r$ and $ s$ the lines obtained reflecting $ AB$ with respect to the internal bisectors of $ \angle CAD$ and $ \angle CBD$, respectively. If $ P$ is the intersection of $ r$ and $ s$ and $ O$ is the center of the circumscribed circle of $ ABCD$, prove that $ OP$ is perpendicular to $ CD$.

2009 Brazilian P5

Let $ ABC$ be a triangle and $ O$ its circumcenter. Lines $ AB$ and $ AC$ meet the circumcircle of $ OBC$ again in $ B_1\neq B$ and $ C_1 \neq C$, respectively, lines $ BA$ and $ BC$ meet the circumcircle of $ OAC$ again in $ A_2\neq A$ and $ C_2\neq C$, respectively, and lines $ CA$ and $ CB$ meet the circumcircle of $ OAB$ in $ A_3\neq A$ and $ B_3\neq B$, respectively. Prove that lines $ A_2A_3$, $ B_1B_3$ and $ C_1C_2$ have a common point.

What is the biggest shadow that a cube of side length $1$ can have, with the sun at its peak?

Note: "The biggest shadow of a figure with the sun at its peak" is understood to be the biggest possible area of the orthogonal projection of the figure on a plane.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. $r$ and $s$ are the angle bisectors of $\angle ABC$ and $\angle BCA$, respectively. The points $E$ in $r$ and $D$ in $s$ are such that $AD \| BE$ and $AE \| CD$. The lines $BD$ and $CE$ cut each other at $F$. $I$ is the incenter of $ABC$. Show that if $A,F,I$ are collinear, then $AB=AC$.

2016 Brazilian P6

Lei it \(ABCD\) be a non-cyclical, convex quadrilateral, with no parallel sides. The lines \(AB\) and \(CD\) meet in \(E\). Let it \(M \not= E\) be the intersection of circumcircles of \(ADE\) and \(BCE\). The internal angle bisectors of \(ABCD\) form an convex, cyclical quadrilateral with circumcenter \(I\). The external angle bisectors of \(ABCD\) form an convex, cyclical quadrilateral with circumcenter \(J\). Show that \(I,J,M\) are collinear.

2017 Brazilian P3

A quadrilateral $ABCD$ has the incircle $\omega$ and is such that the semi-lines $AB$ and $DC$ intersect at point $P$ and the semi-lines $AD$ and $BC$ intersect at point $Q$. The lines $AC$ and $PQ$ intersect at point $R$. Let $T$ be the point of $\omega$ closest from line $PQ$. Prove that the line $RT$ passes through the incenter of triangle $PQC$.

2017 Brazilian P5

In triangle $ABC$, let $r_A$ be the line that passes through the midpoint of $BC$ and is perpendicular to the internal bisector of $\angle{BAC}$. Define $r_B$ and $r_C$ similarly. Let $H$ and $I$ be the orthocenter and incenter of $ABC$, respectively. Suppose that the three lines $r_A$, $r_B$, $r_C$ define a triangle. Prove that the circumcenter of this triangle is the midpoint of $HI$.

2018 Brazilian P1

We say that a polygon $P$ is inscribed in another polygon $Q$ when all vertices of $P$ belong to perimeter of $Q$. We also say in this case that $Q$ is circumscribed to $P$. Given a triangle $T$, let $l$ be the maximum value of the side of a square inscribed in $T$ and $L$ be the minimum value of the side of a square circumscribed to $T$. Prove that for every triangle $T$ the inequality $L/l \ge 2$ holds and find all the triangles $T$ for which the equality occurs.

with aops links in the names

Olimpíada Brasileira de Matemática (OBM)

1979 - 2018

level 3

level 3

The vertex $C$ of the triangle $ABC$ is allowed to vary along a line parallel to $AB$. Find the locus of the orthocenter.

(i) $ABCD$ is a square with side $1$. $M $ is the midpoint of $AB$, and $N$ is the midpoint of $BC$. The lines $CM$ and $DN$ meet at $I$. Find the area of the triangle $CIN$.

(ii) The midpoints of the sides $AB, BC, CD, DA$ of the parallelogram $ABCD$ are $M, N, P, Q$ respectively. Each midpoint is joined to the two vertices not on its side. Show that the area outside the resulting $8$-pointed star is $2 / 5$ the area of the parallelogram.

(iii) $ABC$ is a triangle with $CA = CB$ and centroid G. Show that the area of $AGB$ is $1 / 3 $ of the area of $ABC$.

(iv) Is (ii) true for all convex quadrilaterals $ABCD$?

1980 Brazilian P3

Given a triangle $ABC$ and a point $P_0$ on the side $AB$. Construct points $P_i, Q_i, R_i $ as follows. $Q_i$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $P_i$ to $BC, R_i$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $Q_i$ to $AC$ and $P_i$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $R_{i-1}$ to $AB$. Show that the points $P_i$ converge to a point $P$ on $AB$ and show how to construct $P$.

1981 Brazilian P3

Given a sheet of paper and the use of a rule, compass and pencil, show how to draw a straight line that passes through two given points, if the length of the ruler and the maximum opening of the compass are both less than half the distance between the two points. You may not fold the paper.

1981 Brazilian P6

1981 Brazilian P3

Given a sheet of paper and the use of a rule, compass and pencil, show how to draw a straight line that passes through two given points, if the length of the ruler and the maximum opening of the compass are both less than half the distance between the two points. You may not fold the paper.

1981 Brazilian P6

The centers of the faces of a cube form a regular octahedron of volume $V$. Through each vertex of the cube we may take the plane perpendicular to the long diagonal from the vertex. These planes also form a regular octahedron. Show that its volume is $27V$.

1982 Brazilian P1

The angles of the triangle $ABC$ satisfy $\angle A / \angle C = \angle B / \angle A = 2$. The incenter is $O. K, L$ are the excenters of the excircles opposite $B$ and $A$ respectively. Show that triangles $ABC$ and $OKL$ are similar.

1982 Brazilian P5

The angles of the triangle $ABC$ satisfy $\angle A / \angle C = \angle B / \angle A = 2$. The incenter is $O. K, L$ are the excenters of the excircles opposite $B$ and $A$ respectively. Show that triangles $ABC$ and $OKL$ are similar.

1982 Brazilian P5

Show how to construct a line segment length $(a^4 + b^4)^{1/4}$ given segments lengths $a$ and $b$.

1982 Brazilian P6

Five spheres of radius $r$ are inside a right circular cone. Four of the spheres lie on the base of the cone. Each touches two of the others and the sloping sides of the cone. The fifth sphere touches each of the other four and also the sloping sides of the cone. Find the volume of the cone.

Five spheres of radius $r$ are inside a right circular cone. Four of the spheres lie on the base of the cone. Each touches two of the others and the sloping sides of the cone. The fifth sphere touches each of the other four and also the sloping sides of the cone. Find the volume of the cone.

1983 Brazilian P2

An equilateral triangle $ABC$ has side a. A square is constructed on the outside of each side of the triangle. A right regular pyramid with sloping side $a$ is placed on each square. These pyramids are rotated about the sides of the triangle so that the apex of each pyramid comes to a common point above the triangle. Show that when this has been done, the other vertices of the bases of the pyramids (apart from the vertices of the triangle) form a regular hexagon.

An equilateral triangle $ABC$ has side a. A square is constructed on the outside of each side of the triangle. A right regular pyramid with sloping side $a$ is placed on each square. These pyramids are rotated about the sides of the triangle so that the apex of each pyramid comes to a common point above the triangle. Show that when this has been done, the other vertices of the bases of the pyramids (apart from the vertices of the triangle) form a regular hexagon.

1983 Brazilian P6

Show that the maximum number of spheres of radius $1$ that can be placed touching a fixed sphere of radius $1$ so that no pair of spheres has an interior point in common is between $12$ and $14$.

Show that the maximum number of spheres of radius $1$ that can be placed touching a fixed sphere of radius $1$ so that no pair of spheres has an interior point in common is between $12$ and $14$.

1984 Brazilian P3

Given a regular dodecahedron of side $a$. Take two pairs of opposite faces: $E, E' $ and $F, F'$. For the pair $E, E'$ take the line joining the centers of the faces and take points $A$ and $C$ on the line each a distance $m$ outside one of the faces. Similarly, take $B$ and $D$ on the line joining the centers of $F, F'$ each a distance $m$ outside one of the faces. Show that $ABCD$ is a rectangle and find the ratio of its side lengths.

Given a regular dodecahedron of side $a$. Take two pairs of opposite faces: $E, E' $ and $F, F'$. For the pair $E, E'$ take the line joining the centers of the faces and take points $A$ and $C$ on the line each a distance $m$ outside one of the faces. Similarly, take $B$ and $D$ on the line joining the centers of $F, F'$ each a distance $m$ outside one of the faces. Show that $ABCD$ is a rectangle and find the ratio of its side lengths.

1984 Brazilian P4

$ABC$ is a triangle with $\angle A = 90^o$. For a point $D$ on the side $BC$, the feet of the perpendiculars to $AB$ and $AC$ are $E$ and$ F$. For which point $D$ is $ EF$ a minimum?

$ABC$ is a triangle with $\angle A = 90^o$. For a point $D$ on the side $BC$, the feet of the perpendiculars to $AB$ and $AC$ are $E$ and$ F$. For which point $D$ is $ EF$ a minimum?

$ABCD$ is any convex quadrilateral. Squares center $E, F, G, H$ are constructed on the outside of the edges $AB, BC, CD$ and $DA$ respectively. Show that $EG$ and $FH$ are equal and perpendicular.

1985 Brazilian P2

Given $n$ points in the plane, show that we can always find three which give an angle $\le \pi / n$.

Given $n$ points in the plane, show that we can always find three which give an angle $\le \pi / n$.

1985 Brazilian P3

A convex quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle of radius $1$. Show that the its perimeter less the sum of its two diagonals lies between $0$ and $2$.

A convex quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle of radius $1$. Show that the its perimeter less the sum of its two diagonals lies between $0$ and $2$.

1986 Brazilian P1

A ball moves endlessly on a circular billiard table. When it hits the edge it is reflected. Show that if it passes through a point on the table three times, then it passes through it infinitely many times.

A ball moves endlessly on a circular billiard table. When it hits the edge it is reflected. Show that if it passes through a point on the table three times, then it passes through it infinitely many times.

1986 Brazilian P3

The Poincare plane is a half-plane bounded by a line $R$. The lines are taken to be

(1) the half-lines perpendicular to $R$, and

(2) the semicircles with center on $R$.

Show that given any line $L$ and any point $P$ not on $L$, there are infinitely many lines through $P$ which do not intersect $L$. Show that if $ ABC$ is a triangle, then the sum of its angles lies in the interval $(0, \pi)$.

The Poincare plane is a half-plane bounded by a line $R$. The lines are taken to be

(1) the half-lines perpendicular to $R$, and

(2) the semicircles with center on $R$.

Show that given any line $L$ and any point $P$ not on $L$, there are infinitely many lines through $P$ which do not intersect $L$. Show that if $ ABC$ is a triangle, then the sum of its angles lies in the interval $(0, \pi)$.

1987 Brazilian P5

$A$ and $B$ wish to divide a cake into two pieces. Each wants the largest piece he can get. The cake is a triangular prism with the triangular faces horizontal. $A$ chooses a point $P$ on the top face. $B$ then chooses a vertical plane through the point $P$ to divide the cake. $B$ chooses which piece to take. Which point $P$ should $A $ choose in order to secure as large a slice as possible?

1988 Brazilian P2$A$ and $B$ wish to divide a cake into two pieces. Each wants the largest piece he can get. The cake is a triangular prism with the triangular faces horizontal. $A$ chooses a point $P$ on the top face. $B$ then chooses a vertical plane through the point $P$ to divide the cake. $B$ chooses which piece to take. Which point $P$ should $A $ choose in order to secure as large a slice as possible?

Show that, among all triangles whose vertices are at distances $3,5,7$ respectively from a given point $P$, the ones with largest area have $P$ as orthocenter.

(You can suppose, without demonstration, the existence of a triangle with maximal area in this question.)

1988 Brazilian P4

Two triangles are circumscribed to a circumference. Show that if a circumference containing five of their vertices exists, then it will contain the sixth vertex too.

A tetrahedron is such that the center of the its circumscribed sphere is inside the tetrahedron. Show that at least one of its edges has a size larger than or equal to the size of the edge of a regular tetrahedron inscribed in this same sphere.

Each face of a tetrahedron is a triangle with sides $a, b,$c and the tetrahedon has circumradius 1. Find $a^2 + b^2 + c^2$.

$ABCD$ is a quadrilateral, $E,F,G,H$ are midpoints of $AB,BC,CD,DA$. Find the point P such that $area (PHAE) = area (PEBF) = area (PFCG) = area (PGDH)$.

1991 Brazilian P2

$P$ is a point inside the triangle $ABC$. The line through $P$ parallel to $AB$ meets $AC$ $A_0$ and $BC$ at $B_0$. Similarly, the line through $P$ parallel to $CA$ meets $AB$ at $A_1$ and $BC$ at $C_1$, and the line through P parallel to BC meets $AB$ at $B_2$ and $AC$ at $C_2$. Find the point $P$ such that $A_0B_0 = A_1C_1 = B_2C_2$.

1991 Brazilian P5

$P_0 = (1,0), P_1 = (1,1), P_2 = (0,1), P_3 = (0,0)$. $P_{n+4}$ is the midpoint of $P_nP_{n+1}$.

$Q_n$ is the quadrilateral $P_{n}P_{n+1}P_{n+2}P_{n+3}$. $A_n$ is the interior of $Q_n$.

Find $\cap_{n \geq 0}A_n$.

$P$ is a point inside the triangle $ABC$. The line through $P$ parallel to $AB$ meets $AC$ $A_0$ and $BC$ at $B_0$. Similarly, the line through $P$ parallel to $CA$ meets $AB$ at $A_1$ and $BC$ at $C_1$, and the line through P parallel to BC meets $AB$ at $B_2$ and $AC$ at $C_2$. Find the point $P$ such that $A_0B_0 = A_1C_1 = B_2C_2$.

1991 Brazilian P5

$P_0 = (1,0), P_1 = (1,1), P_2 = (0,1), P_3 = (0,0)$. $P_{n+4}$ is the midpoint of $P_nP_{n+1}$.

$Q_n$ is the quadrilateral $P_{n}P_{n+1}P_{n+2}P_{n+3}$. $A_n$ is the interior of $Q_n$.

Find $\cap_{n \geq 0}A_n$.

Given positive real numbers $x_1, x_2, \ldots , x_n$ find the polygon $A_0A_1\ldots A_n$ with $A_iA_{i+1} = x_{i+1}$ and which has greatest area.

1993 Brazilian P3

Given a circle and its center $O$, a point $A$ inside the circle and a distance $h$, construct a triangle $BAC$ with $\angle BAC = 90^\circ$, $B$ and $C$ on the circle and the altitude from $A$ length $h$.

Given a circle and its center $O$, a point $A$ inside the circle and a distance $h$, construct a triangle $BAC$ with $\angle BAC = 90^\circ$, $B$ and $C$ on the circle and the altitude from $A$ length $h$.

1993 Brazilian P4

$ABCD$ is a convex quadrilateral with

$\angle BAC = 30^\circ , \angle CAD = 20^\circ , \angle ABD = 50^\circ , \angle DBC = 30^\circ$

If the diagonals intersect at $P$, show that $PC = PD$.

$ABCD$ is a convex quadrilateral with

$\angle BAC = 30^\circ , \angle CAD = 20^\circ , \angle ABD = 50^\circ , \angle DBC = 30^\circ$

If the diagonals intersect at $P$, show that $PC = PD$.

1994 Brazilian P6

A triangle has semi-perimeter $s$, circumradius $R$ and inradius $r$. Show that it is right-angled iff $2R = s - r$.

A triangle has semi-perimeter $s$, circumradius $R$ and inradius $r$. Show that it is right-angled iff $2R = s - r$.

$ABCD$ is a quadrilateral with a circumcircle centre $O$ and an inscribed circle centre $I$. The diagonals intersect at $S$. Show that if two of $O,I,S$ coincide, then it must be a square.

1995 Brazilian P4

A regular tetrahedron has side $L$. What is the smallest $x$ such that the tetrahedron can be passed through a loop of twine of length $x$?

1995 Brazilian P4

A regular tetrahedron has side $L$. What is the smallest $x$ such that the tetrahedron can be passed through a loop of twine of length $x$?

$ABC$ is acute-angled. $D$ s a variable point on the side BC. $O_1$ is the circumcenter of $ABD$, $O_2$ is the circumcenter of $ACD$, and $O$ is the circumcenter of $AO_1O_2$. Find the locus of $O$.

1997 Brazilian P1

Given $R, r > 0$. Two circles are drawn radius $R$, $r$ which meet in two points. The line joining the two points is a distance $D$ from the center of one circle and a distance $d$ from the center of the other. What is the smallest possible value for $D+d$?

1998 Brazilian P2

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. $D$ is the midpoint of $AB$, $E$ is a point on the side $BC$ such that $BE = 2 EC$ and $\angle ADC = \angle BAE$. Find $\angle BAC$.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. $D$ is the midpoint of $AB$, $E$ is a point on the side $BC$ such that $BE = 2 EC$ and $\angle ADC = \angle BAE$. Find $\angle BAC$.

Let $ABCDE$ be a regular pentagon. The star $ACEBD$ has area 1. $AC$ and $BE$ meet at $P$, while $BD$ and $CE$ meet at $Q$. Find the area of $APQD$.

1999 Brazilian P6

Given any triangle $ABC$, show how to construct $A'$ on the side $AB$, $B'$ on the side $BC$ and $C'$ on the side $CA$, such that $ABC$ and $A'B'C'$ are similar (with $\angle A = \angle A', \angle B = \angle B', \angle C = \angle C'$) and $A'B'C'$ has the least possible area.

Given any triangle $ABC$, show how to construct $A'$ on the side $AB$, $B'$ on the side $BC$ and $C'$ on the side $CA$, such that $ABC$ and $A'B'C'$ are similar (with $\angle A = \angle A', \angle B = \angle B', \angle C = \angle C'$) and $A'B'C'$ has the least possible area.

A rectangular piece of paper has top edge $AD$. A line $L$ from $A$ to the bottom edge makes an angle $x$ with the line $AD$. We want to trisect $x$. We take $B$ and $C$ on the vertical ege through $A$ such that $AB = BC$. We then fold the paper so that $C$ goes to a point $C'$ on the line $L$ and $A$ goes to a point $A'$ on the horizontal line through $B$. The fold takes $B$ to $B'$. Show that $AA'$ and $AB'$ are the required trisectors.

$ABC$ is a triangle. $E, F$ are points in $AB$, such that $AE = EF = FB$ . $D$ is a point at the line $BC$ such that $ED$ is perpendiculat to $BC$ . $AD$ is perpendicular to $CF$. The angle CFA is the triple of angle BDF. ($3\angle BDF = \angle CFA$)

Determine the ratio $\frac{DB}{DC}$.

2001 Brazilian P5

An altitude of a convex quadrilateral is a line through the midpoint of a side perpendicular to the opposite side. Show that the four altitudes are concurrent iff the quadrilateral is cyclic.

2002 Brazilian P2

$ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral and $M$ a point on the side $CD$ such that $ADM$ and $ABCM$ have the same area and the same perimeter. Show that two sides of $ABCD$ have the same length.

2003 Brazilian P4

Given a circle and a point $A$ inside the circle, but not at its center. Find points $B$, $C$, $D$ on the circle which maximise the area of the quadrilateral $ABCD$.

Determine the ratio $\frac{DB}{DC}$.

An altitude of a convex quadrilateral is a line through the midpoint of a side perpendicular to the opposite side. Show that the four altitudes are concurrent iff the quadrilateral is cyclic.

$ABCD$ is a cyclic quadrilateral and $M$ a point on the side $CD$ such that $ADM$ and $ABCM$ have the same area and the same perimeter. Show that two sides of $ABCD$ have the same length.

$ABCD$ is a rhombus. Take points $E$, $F$, $G$, $H$ on sides $AB$, $BC$, $CD$, $DA$ respectively so that $EF$ and $GH$ are tangent to the incircle of $ABCD$. Show that $EH$ and $FG$ are parallel.

Given a circle and a point $A$ inside the circle, but not at its center. Find points $B$, $C$, $D$ on the circle which maximise the area of the quadrilateral $ABCD$.

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Prove that the incircles of the triangles $ABC$, $BCD$, $CDA$ and $DAB$ have a point in common if, and only if, $ABCD$ is a rhombus.

2005 Brazilian P3

A square is contained in a cube when all of its points are in the faces or in the interior of the cube. Determine the biggest $\ell > 0$ such that there exists a square of side $\ell$ contained in a cube with edge $1$.

A square is contained in a cube when all of its points are in the faces or in the interior of the cube. Determine the biggest $\ell > 0$ such that there exists a square of side $\ell$ contained in a cube with edge $1$.

2005 Brazilian P5

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with all angles $\leq 120^{\circ}$. Let $F$ be the Fermat point of triangle $ABC$, that is, the interior point of $ABC$ such that $\angle AFB = \angle BFC = \angle CFA = 120^\circ$. For each one of the three triangles $BFC$, $CFA$ and $AFB$, draw its Euler line - that is, the line connecting its circumcenter and its centroid. Prove that these three Euler lines pass through one common point.

Remark: The Fermat point $F$ is also known as the first Fermat point or the first Toricelli point of triangle $ABC$.

2006 Brazilian P1Let $ABC$ be a triangle with all angles $\leq 120^{\circ}$. Let $F$ be the Fermat point of triangle $ABC$, that is, the interior point of $ABC$ such that $\angle AFB = \angle BFC = \angle CFA = 120^\circ$. For each one of the three triangles $BFC$, $CFA$ and $AFB$, draw its Euler line - that is, the line connecting its circumcenter and its centroid. Prove that these three Euler lines pass through one common point.

Remark: The Fermat point $F$ is also known as the first Fermat point or the first Toricelli point of triangle $ABC$.

by Floor van Lamoen

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. The internal bisector of $\angle B$ meets $AC$ in $P$ and $I$ is the incenter of $ABC$. Prove that if $AP+AB = CB$, then $API$ is an isosceles triangle.

Let $ ABCD$ be a convex quadrangle, $ P$ the intersection of lines $ AB$ and $ CD$, $ Q$ the intersection of lines $ AD$ and $ BC$ and $ O$ the intersection of diagonals $ AC$ and $ BD$. Show that if $ \angle POQ = 90^\circ$ then $ PO$ is the bisector of $ \angle AOD$ and $ OQ$ is the bisector of $ \angle AOB$.

Let $ ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral and $ r$ and $ s$ the lines obtained reflecting $ AB$ with respect to the internal bisectors of $ \angle CAD$ and $ \angle CBD$, respectively. If $ P$ is the intersection of $ r$ and $ s$ and $ O$ is the center of the circumscribed circle of $ ABCD$, prove that $ OP$ is perpendicular to $ CD$.

2009 Brazilian P5

Let $ ABC$ be a triangle and $ O$ its circumcenter. Lines $ AB$ and $ AC$ meet the circumcircle of $ OBC$ again in $ B_1\neq B$ and $ C_1 \neq C$, respectively, lines $ BA$ and $ BC$ meet the circumcircle of $ OAC$ again in $ A_2\neq A$ and $ C_2\neq C$, respectively, and lines $ CA$ and $ CB$ meet the circumcircle of $ OAB$ in $ A_3\neq A$ and $ B_3\neq B$, respectively. Prove that lines $ A_2A_3$, $ B_1B_3$ and $ C_1C_2$ have a common point.

Note: "The biggest shadow of a figure with the sun at its peak" is understood to be the biggest possible area of the orthogonal projection of the figure on a plane.

2010 Brazilian P4

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral, and $M$ and $N$ the midpoints of the sides $CD$ and $AD$, respectively. The lines perpendicular to $AB$ passing through $M$ and to $BC$ passing through $N$ intersect at point $P$. Prove that $P$ is on the diagonal $BD$ if and only if the diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular.

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral, and $M$ and $N$ the midpoints of the sides $CD$ and $AD$, respectively. The lines perpendicular to $AB$ passing through $M$ and to $BC$ passing through $N$ intersect at point $P$. Prove that $P$ is on the diagonal $BD$ if and only if the diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ are perpendicular.

2011 Brazilian P3

Prove that, for all convex pentagons $P_1 P_2 P_3 P_4 P_5$ with area 1, there are indices $i$ and $j$ (assume $P_7 = P_2$ and $P_6 = P_1$) such that: $ \text{Area of} \ \triangle P_i P_{i+1} P_{i+2} \le \frac{5 - \sqrt 5}{10} \le \text{Area of} \ \triangle P_j P_{j+1} P_{j+2}$

Prove that, for all convex pentagons $P_1 P_2 P_3 P_4 P_5$ with area 1, there are indices $i$ and $j$ (assume $P_7 = P_2$ and $P_6 = P_1$) such that: $ \text{Area of} \ \triangle P_i P_{i+1} P_{i+2} \le \frac{5 - \sqrt 5}{10} \le \text{Area of} \ \triangle P_j P_{j+1} P_{j+2}$

2011 Brazilian P5

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle and $H$ is orthocenter. Let $D$ be the intersection of $BH$ and $AC$ and $E$ be the intersection of $CH$ and $AB$. The circumcircle of $ADE$ cuts the circumcircle of $ABC$ at $F \neq A$. Prove that the angle bisectors of $\angle BFC$ and $\angle BHC$ concur at a point on $BC.$

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle and $H$ is orthocenter. Let $D$ be the intersection of $BH$ and $AC$ and $E$ be the intersection of $CH$ and $AB$. The circumcircle of $ADE$ cuts the circumcircle of $ABC$ at $F \neq A$. Prove that the angle bisectors of $\angle BFC$ and $\angle BHC$ concur at a point on $BC.$

$ABC$ is a non-isosceles triangle. $T_A$ is the tangency point of incircle of $ABC$ in the side $BC$ (define $T_B$,$T_C$ analogously). $I_A$ is the ex-center relative to the side BC (define $I_B$,$I_C$ analogously). $X_A$ is the mid-point of $I_BI_C$ (define $X_B$,$X_C$ analogously). Show that $X_AT_A$,$X_BT_B$,$X_CT_C$ meet in a common point, colinear with the incenter and circumcenter of $ABC$.

2013 Brazilian P1

Let $\Gamma$ be a circle and $A$ a point outside $\Gamma$. The tangent lines to $\Gamma$ through $A$ touch $\Gamma$ at $B$ and $C$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $AB$. The segment $MC$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $D$ and the line $AD$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $E$. Given that $AB=a$, $BC=b$, compute $CE$ in terms of $a$ and $b$.

2016 Brazilian P1Let $\Gamma$ be a circle and $A$ a point outside $\Gamma$. The tangent lines to $\Gamma$ through $A$ touch $\Gamma$ at $B$ and $C$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $AB$. The segment $MC$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $D$ and the line $AD$ meets $\Gamma$ again at $E$. Given that $AB=a$, $BC=b$, compute $CE$ in terms of $a$ and $b$.

2013 Brazilian P6

The incircle of triangle $ABC$ touches sides $BC, CA$ and $AB$ at points $D, E$ and $F$, respectively. Let $P$ be the intersection of lines $AD$ and $BE$. The reflections of $P$ with respect to $EF, FD$ and $DE$ are $X,Y$ and $Z$, respectively. Prove that lines $AX, BY$ and $CZ$ are concurrent at a point on line $IO$, where $I$ and $O$ are the incenter and circumcenter of triangle $ABC$.

The incircle of triangle $ABC$ touches sides $BC, CA$ and $AB$ at points $D, E$ and $F$, respectively. Let $P$ be the intersection of lines $AD$ and $BE$. The reflections of $P$ with respect to $EF, FD$ and $DE$ are $X,Y$ and $Z$, respectively. Prove that lines $AX, BY$ and $CZ$ are concurrent at a point on line $IO$, where $I$ and $O$ are the incenter and circumcenter of triangle $ABC$.

2014 Brazilian P1

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at point $P$. The inradii of triangles $ABP$, $BCP$, $CDP$ and $DAP$ are equal. Prove that $ABCD$ is a rhombus.

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at point $P$. The inradii of triangles $ABP$, $BCP$, $CDP$ and $DAP$ are equal. Prove that $ABCD$ is a rhombus.

2014 Brazilian P6

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incenter $I$ and incircle $\omega$. Circle $\omega_A$ is externally tangent to $\omega$ and tangent to sides $AB$ and $AC$ at $A_1$ and $A_2$, respectively. Let $r_A$ be the line $A_1A_2$. Define $r_B$ and $r_C$ in a similar fashion. Lines $r_A$, $r_B$ and $r_C$ determine a triangle $XYZ$. Prove that the incenter of $XYZ$, the circumcenter of $XYZ$ and $I$ are collinear.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incenter $I$ and incircle $\omega$. Circle $\omega_A$ is externally tangent to $\omega$ and tangent to sides $AB$ and $AC$ at $A_1$ and $A_2$, respectively. Let $r_A$ be the line $A_1A_2$. Define $r_B$ and $r_C$ in a similar fashion. Lines $r_A$, $r_B$ and $r_C$ determine a triangle $XYZ$. Prove that the incenter of $XYZ$, the circumcenter of $XYZ$ and $I$ are collinear.

2015 Brazilian P1

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute-scalene triangle, and let $N$ be the center of the circle wich pass trough the feet of altitudes. Let $D$ be the intersection of tangents to the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ at $B$ and $C$. Prove that $A$, $D$ and $N$ are collinear iff $\measuredangle BAC = 45º$.

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute-scalene triangle, and let $N$ be the center of the circle wich pass trough the feet of altitudes. Let $D$ be the intersection of tangents to the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ at $B$ and $C$. Prove that $A$, $D$ and $N$ are collinear iff $\measuredangle BAC = 45º$.

2015 Brazilian P6

Let $\triangle ABC$ be a scalene triangle and $X$, $Y$ and $Z$ be points on the lines $BC$, $AC$ and $AB$, respectively, such that $\measuredangle AXB = \measuredangle BYC = \measuredangle CZA$. The circumcircles of $BXZ$ and $CXY$ intersect at $P$. Prove that $P$ is on the circumference which diameter has ends in the ortocenter $H$ and in the baricenter $G$ of $\triangle ABC$.

Let $\triangle ABC$ be a scalene triangle and $X$, $Y$ and $Z$ be points on the lines $BC$, $AC$ and $AB$, respectively, such that $\measuredangle AXB = \measuredangle BYC = \measuredangle CZA$. The circumcircles of $BXZ$ and $CXY$ intersect at $P$. Prove that $P$ is on the circumference which diameter has ends in the ortocenter $H$ and in the baricenter $G$ of $\triangle ABC$.

Let $ABC$ be a triangle. $r$ and $s$ are the angle bisectors of $\angle ABC$ and $\angle BCA$, respectively. The points $E$ in $r$ and $D$ in $s$ are such that $AD \| BE$ and $AE \| CD$. The lines $BD$ and $CE$ cut each other at $F$. $I$ is the incenter of $ABC$. Show that if $A,F,I$ are collinear, then $AB=AC$.

2016 Brazilian P6

Lei it \(ABCD\) be a non-cyclical, convex quadrilateral, with no parallel sides. The lines \(AB\) and \(CD\) meet in \(E\). Let it \(M \not= E\) be the intersection of circumcircles of \(ADE\) and \(BCE\). The internal angle bisectors of \(ABCD\) form an convex, cyclical quadrilateral with circumcenter \(I\). The external angle bisectors of \(ABCD\) form an convex, cyclical quadrilateral with circumcenter \(J\). Show that \(I,J,M\) are collinear.

2017 Brazilian P3

A quadrilateral $ABCD$ has the incircle $\omega$ and is such that the semi-lines $AB$ and $DC$ intersect at point $P$ and the semi-lines $AD$ and $BC$ intersect at point $Q$. The lines $AC$ and $PQ$ intersect at point $R$. Let $T$ be the point of $\omega$ closest from line $PQ$. Prove that the line $RT$ passes through the incenter of triangle $PQC$.

2017 Brazilian P5

In triangle $ABC$, let $r_A$ be the line that passes through the midpoint of $BC$ and is perpendicular to the internal bisector of $\angle{BAC}$. Define $r_B$ and $r_C$ similarly. Let $H$ and $I$ be the orthocenter and incenter of $ABC$, respectively. Suppose that the three lines $r_A$, $r_B$, $r_C$ define a triangle. Prove that the circumcenter of this triangle is the midpoint of $HI$.

2018 Brazilian P1

We say that a polygon $P$ is inscribed in another polygon $Q$ when all vertices of $P$ belong to perimeter of $Q$. We also say in this case that $Q$ is circumscribed to $P$. Given a triangle $T$, let $l$ be the maximum value of the side of a square inscribed in $T$ and $L$ be the minimum value of the side of a square circumscribed to $T$. Prove that for every triangle $T$ the inequality $L/l \ge 2$ holds and find all the triangles $T$ for which the equality occurs.

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